Thursday, November 28, 2019
The Raid ? The Raid ? The way I approached dissecting Clifford Geertz's ?The Raid? was by reading it carefully over a few times while taking notes on the side. The first time I read the piece, I was very confused because of Geertz's choice of word. He often used the singular word ?he? to make reference to the people of Bali as a whole. I was not wary of this the first time I read and was totally lost. Another element of the reading that I thought made the reading more difficult was Geertz's usage of references that was unknown to me. A few times in the reading he borrowed terms and ideas from his contemporaries such as Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead. I have never read the work of these people and therefore unable to understand the deeper meaning. However after reading ?The Raid ? a few times I felt that the reading was not difficult at all, in fact, it was very interesting. According to Geertz Balinese are very simple people. they[the Balinese] rarely face what they can turn away from, rarely resist what they can evade.? Their lives are simple, yet exclusive. This was the dilemma Geertz and his wife faced when they first arrived. Unlike the other villagers Geertz and his wife visited in Java who gawked at them with insatiable curiosity, Geertz and his wife was instead completely ignore by the Balinese. Geeretz described himself and his wife in their first few days as ?nonpersons,? ?specters,? ?invisible men.? Nonetheless this all changed when Geertz visited one of the local favorite pastime, cockfighting. Cockfighting is a brutal, barbaric blood sport in which men in the village arm their cocks with razor sharp spurs and sends them at each other's cock while other villagers bet on which cock will be victorious. Amidst all the blood, gore, and excitement of the fight the police sounded the siren and raided the fight. Being at the center of this much-condemned sport by the government, Geertz and his wife fled instinctively. This unfortunate event led them to be accepted into the lives of the Balinese. Geertz could've easily stayed and presented the police the paper work that shows he was a professor studying the culture there and could've been exempt from any charges. However in fleeing he proved to the villagers that he was no better than they are and that in fact he was one of them. ? ?above all, everyone was extremely pleased and even surprise that we had not simply ? pulled out our papers'? ? The next morning the village was completely different world for us.? Such unfortunate event had allow Geertz to be accepted and transformed the villagers view of him. Now that he had build a better rapport with the villagers I predict that his further study of them will be a lot more effective and ea sier. His newfound status will facilitate his further research. They will ?let him in? on secrets that even years of studying will not yield. His future relationship with them will be a prosperous one. Anthropology
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Essay on Beyond the Scientific Method Essay on Beyond the Scientific Method CASE STUDY # 1 UNCOVERING THE SOURCE OF A COMA PREPARED BY: ALLANTE WEBB DATE: 9/13/11 CHM 1030.007 The purpose of this case study is to apply the scientific method by making empirical observations, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, revising the hypothesis, and eventually asserting a theory. LG is a 35 year old woman who came into the emergency room with numerous of symptoms. She had stiff muscles and has shortness of breath. LG was also sweaty and shaky. These symptoms were experienced before she was diagnosed with hypokalemia. In her past medical history it was discovered that she suffers from spina bifida since birth, asthma, a latex allergy, has an ileostomy, and a leg weakness. Because of her leg weakness LG has to use a walker. LG has been suffering from numerous things since birth. When a person has been diagnosed with other diseases or sickness it is common for them to be affected in other ways too. Over time I believe her spina bifida worsened and affected her lungs and made her muscles stiff. The result is bad because her health is more at risk. There was nothing done right or wrong. The disease just spread throughout her body and now is making it hard for her to breath. Even though she has asthma, which is treated with a nebulizer, this does not aide in her breathing. LG also had an ileostomy which is a surgical opening constructed by bringing the end loop of the small intestine out onto the surface of her skin. In order to further support my hypothesis I would ask the patient to present to me her family medical history. This will help in finding a way to solve her symptoms that are now occurring. I would like to find out if spina bifida and or hypokalemia is in her past history. Having the family medical history will help me better understand how this happened to LG and why. I would asses her breathing and muscle strength. This would inform me how fast her bones are stiffening. If spina bifida causes her shortness of breath and stiff muscles then that will explain why she has these symptoms. Hypokalemia is not the diagnosis of LG. I am now going to research both of these diagnoses and see if my hypothesis is proven. Hypokalemia is means that the potassium in the blood is too low. It causes a small elevation in blood pressure and can provoke cardiac arrthythmias. Cardiac arrthymias is when the heartÃ¢â¬â¢s normal rhythm is disrupted. This leads to shortness of breath. Hypokalemia causes muscles cramps, muscle weakness, and also constipation. Urinary loss, low potassium intake, and integument loss are a few causes of hypokalemia. In order to treat hypokalemia it has to be determined how severe the case is. Mild hypokalemia is treated with an oral potassium chloride supplement. Potassium related food is put into the personÃ¢â¬â¢s diet. Severe hypokalemia is treated intravenous with an IV supplementation. When replacing potassium intravenously, infusion via a central line is encouraged to avoid the frequent occurrence of a burning sensation at the site of a peripheral IV, or the rare occurrence of damage to the vein. Spina bifida is a congenital disorder caused by the incomplete closing of the embryo neural tube. There are no clear causes of this disease but researchers believe it could be environmental or genetic. In severe cases the spine and back will swell. The person will have nerve damage that will affect their daily life. The person with spina bifida also develops an allergy to latex. Spina bifida is diagnosed before and after birth. While pregnant a woman can get an ultrasound and have blood work done to see if her child has this defect. She can also undergo a maternal triple or quadruple screen. If the triple or quadruple screen test shows that you have elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein a neural tube defect in the fetus, such as spina bifida, may be suspected. In this case more detailed tests are done. Spina bifida can be treated by physical
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Health Care System - Essay Example Even as the range of benefits has broadened, the program still contains what some see as gaps and others regard as areas in which private and state programs need to be strengthened. Either way, most people agree that long-term care represents a contingency for which most are psychologically and financially unprepared. Some suggest that the list of Medicare benefits should be expanded to include payments for nursing homes and other long-term care services. Social Security consisted of two sets of rules. One set governed the payroll taxes, and the other set described the benefits to which workers were entitled. Both the level of taxes and the amount and types of benefits changed over the years. In 1965, legislators raised the tax level and established a major new type of benefit. By adding hospital insurance to the array of Social Security benefits, they launched Medicare. In addition to the original retirement benefits for workers over 65, the new benefits included payments to the wives and children of retired workers and to the widows and children of workers who died before age 65. After 1939, therefore, Social Security included benefits to a worker's survivors (Ruskinm 2009). The second milestone occurred in 1950 when Congress decided to raise the tax rate, and, updating benefit levels for price changes in the 1940s, to increase substantially the level of payments to retired workers and the survivors of workers. Social Security--tha t is, the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance program--is by far the largest American social insurance program, with the greatest impact on individuals and families. In 1992, for example, 132 million American workers and their employers paid Social Security taxes and about 41 million Americans received Social Security benefits each month (Peltz, 2008). As living standards improved, more Americans expected to retire, and retirement became widely perceived as a period of earned leisure. State welfare programs for the elderly provided real competition to the Social Security program in the 1930s and 1940s but declined as a threat to Social Security in the 1950s. Medical care became increasingly desirable as a good to consume in the 1940s and 1950s, and the supply of private health insurance increased exponentially in these decades (Ruskinm 2009). Modern Health Care System Medicare and Medicaid programs are based on early insurance programs and plans improved and redesigned by the government. Even so, many indirect infusions of general revenues are made into the program, including the revenue produced from treating a portion of Social Security benefits as taxable income. The second proposal would put Social Security financing on a pay-as-you-go basis. In this approach, Congress collects, through payroll taxes or some other means, only the amount of money necessary to sustain the program on a current basis. This approach, however, has the benefit of keeping taxes low, avoiding the difficult problem of how to preserve the supposed surpluses in the program (Staff 2009). This approach has the disadvantage of leaving the future to take care of itself, arguably bequeathing large burdens to future generations (Staff 2009). The government does not permit this activity to occur in
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Sexual Violence in Government and Politics - Essay Example From this paper it is clear thatÃ politics governs the world since most of the policies used to implement the law and order are as a result of political ramifications. However, politics goes beyond the formulation of rules and laws that are used as a benchmark to govern societies. State have their foreign policies that regulate the extent to which they engage with other global allies. In the twenty-first century, sexual violence has become a tool for creating a compromise between opposing groups in the case of political conflicts. For instance, if a conflict ensues between two opposing sides of the government one may kidnap some members of the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s particularly women and girls to exploit them sexually as an act of provocation to compromise the other group to come to consensus.This essay highlights thatÃ sexual violence is thriving in governments, but most of the cases go unreported since their perpetrators threaten the victims because of the influence they command. It is a common phenomenon in most governments that people have to part with sexual favors in order to receive certain services from government officials. For instance, if one is looking for a job in a government agency, the bosses often demand sexual favors in return for the job. In essence, it is a kind of a barter exchange that occurs, but that result because the victims find themselves in a compromising situation in which they either give in to the demands or else they miss the opportunity, benefits or service that they were to receive.Ã
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Health Care in Australia - Essay Example Short). Be that as it may, anomalies exist in the health care system in Australia. The health care spread is uneven in Australia due to disparities in social and economic levels. The health scenario in the rural areas and place where indigenous populations live is not what it is in the urban areas. There are several reasons for this. The four key challenges to Australia's health systems are affordability of services, expansion of the health workforce to meet the needs of older population, treatment of chronic disease in the community instead of in hospitals, and the integration of complex services in care delivery (Health And The 2007 Federal Elections). The cost of health care is quite high in Australia. There have been attempts to integrate medical care with economy. Most researchers agree that social and economic conditions such as levels of education, types of work, and rates of unemployment, affect population health. A report produced by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare found that more than 23,000 lives could have been saved in 1998-2000 if the poorest 80 percent of the population had access to the same living conditions and quality of care as the wealthiest 20 percent. In the same period, that is, 1998-2000, the richest males and females lived 3.9 years and 2 years longer respectively than the poorest. The gulf between the rich and the poor is widening. Data from 1985-87 and 1998-2000 reveal that mortality inequality between the rich and the poor increased for all causes and almost doubled for cancers and cardiovascular disease (Karen Holland). Australia's health economy is expanding. However, despite this expansion the health care system is unable to deliver appropriate and timely care to Australians. There is continuing concern about waiting lists for surgical procedures and specialists consultations in public hospitals, long waiting times in the private sector for particular specialties and increasing disparities between the delivery of care in major centers and in the rural sector. The problem lies in the multiplicity of organizations that administer and fund the health sector, outdated industrial practices, and lack of willingness on the part of any of these groups to reorganize in order to provide more efficient services. A recent World Health Organization report estimated that there would be a global shortage of over four million doctors, nurses, midwives and other health workers over the next decade. This shortage is felt in health force in Australia too. The health workforce currently makes up just over 11% of the total workforce in Australia. The number should increase to around 20% (Peter Brooks and Niki Ellis). Aging population in Australia today poses significant problems to the healthcare system. The challenge is to move to an appropriate health care system for the 65 plus population with chronic disease. The Australian health system is struggling to care for this section of the population in an appropriate, cost-effective and timely manner (From Episodic Treatment To Chronic
Friday, November 15, 2019
A Report On Race And Ethnicity Sociology Essay Racism and Ethnicity are two well known subjects in the academic world. Although not a popular choice of study Racism and Ethnicity can be found in Multicultural education, Sociology, Economics, to name just a few. Although used in the same way, Racism and Ethnicity are very different. The purpose of this essay is to define and provide examples of racism, institutional racism, and individual racism. I will also focus on the impacts that these forms of racism have on those who are on the receiving end of racism. The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines racism in two meanings: One, Ã¢â¬Å"the belief that there are characteristics, abilities, or qualities specific to each raceÃ¢â¬ and two, Ã¢â¬Å"discrimination against or antagonism towards other racesÃ¢â¬ . Ethnicity on the other hand has three meanings: One, Ã¢â¬Å"relating to a group of people having a common national or cultural traditionÃ¢â¬ two, Ã¢â¬Å"referring to origin by birth than by present nationality: ethnic Albanians 3. Ã¢â¬Å"relating to a non-Western cultural tradition: ethnic music. (Oxford Dictionary: rev 2009). The word Ã¢â¬Å"raceÃ¢â¬ has been around for several hundreds of years. At first it was used to describe an extended family through the generations, then as times passed it referred to large groups of people that were not family yet shared the same cultural practices and traditions, values and demographic location. When the Europeans made contact with people outside their homeland (America, Asia and Oceania) they would put people into categories that would show differences between their culture and those who were Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ to them. These categories according to Pearson were what Banton (a writer on Evolution) called Ã¢â¬Å"Selectionist theories of evolutionÃ¢â¬ . (Pearson:1990). Banton argued that a persons Ã¢â¬Å"physical appearance (phenotype) and/or inbuilt genetic makeup (genotype) explained human thought and action (Pearson: 1990) and it was then acceptable for people to define people on a Ã¢â¬Å"scale of attributes, from inferior to superior, from primitive to superiorÃ¢â¬ (Pearson: 1990) all of which has made many a scientist question the world and how it is breaking up people into different races. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries a hierarchy was formed where those who were black (dark skinned) would be at the bottom and those who were white (fair skinned) wee at the top. Those who had dark skin were considered less educated or uneducated, simple people who were best suited to jobs that involved physical and manual labour. A white person, notably a white male middle class male, had intelligence, held down a job in managerial role and was financially far better of than those of dark skin. This was known as Ã¢â¬Å"racial essence, to determine the abilities of a person or a groupÃ¢â¬ (Study Guide: Unit 6). By the mid twentieth century, the study of genetics was becoming a turning point in humanity. Rather than focussing on a persons skin colour, it became more acceptable that having good access to food, education, clean water, and healthcare contributed to the development in human beings. Pearson (1990), argued ethnicity is Ã¢â¬Å"what people doÃ¢â¬ (Study Guide: U nit 6) and demonstrated this by quoting a set of definitions by Anthony Smith with reference to ethnic communities. Ethnic communities have: a Ã¢â¬Å"collective name a Ã¢â¬Å"common myth of decentÃ¢â¬ a Ã¢â¬Å"distinctive shared cultureÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"an association with a specific territoryÃ¢â¬ and a Ã¢â¬Å"sense of solidarityÃ¢â¬ This is defined in Pearsons article as an ethnic community Ã¢â¬Å"as a named human population with shared ancestry, myths, histories, and cultures having an association with a specific terroritory and a sense of solidarityÃ¢â¬ (Pearson: 1990). Institutional racism focuses on a group of people who are often more Ã¢â¬Å"dominantÃ¢â¬ than other groups and choose to criticise another group for being like second class citizens in particular Ã¢â¬Å"radically inferiorÃ¢â¬ (Pearson:1990) that allow a more dominant group to dictate to the less off group Ã¢â¬Å"where they live, what language they speak, what school they attend, what job they acquire, how they are treated by the police and the courts, how they are portrayed by the media, and what form of political and legal representation they have to recourse toÃ¢â¬ (Pearson: 1990). Thus, those who are part of the more dominant group can dictate how the less dominant group can be used and have the racist beliefs and actions placed upon them. An example of instutional racism is prominent where there are often two or more different ethnicities. In South Africa for example, Ã¢â¬Å"judicial rules and regulations discriminating against black persons are a clear case point (Pear son: 1990). In New Zealand however, there is no such thing as discriminatory legislation and policies and practices are usually unintentional than discriminating towards one another. Individual racism on the other hand is more personal and is targeted at individuals rather than a group of people. Also known as personal racism, Brislin identifies four types of individual racism: 1. Intense racism Ã¢â¬Å"the belief that certain people are inferior, and hence are perceived as being of low worth. 2. Symbolic racism- Dominant groups Ã¢â¬Å"feel the the out group is interfering with important aspects of the culture- creating problemsÃ¢â¬ . 3. Tokenism- Dominant groups prove that they have engaged in Ã¢â¬Å"token activities to prove that they have even handed the treatment of other racesÃ¢â¬ . 4. Arms length- People engaging Ã¢â¬Å"in friendly positive behaviours towards out group members in some social settings but treat them the same out group members with noticeably less warmth and friendliness in other settingsÃ¢â¬ . Brislin(2000). Kenan Malik argued that individual racism Ã¢â¬Å"imprisons those who are subjected to it while strengthening Western culturesÃ¢â¬ . Orientalism, which Malik quotes is a Ã¢â¬Å"dualism between the east and the west and the Orient and has helped to define Ã¢â¬Ëother Ã¢â¬Å"which people can see is different and excluded in race relationships. In summary I have defined and provide some examples of racism and ethnicity and outlined the concepts of institutional racism and individual racism. By focussing on these examples we can be sure that racism affects people either as a nation or are subjects of individual attacks. By being aware of these prejudices, it is important to understand that we should not feel more superior to one another just because of the colour of someone elses skin. Racism is in many parts of the world and although it appears for many reasons, it should be addressed so not to damage a particular culture or a persons identity.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
There are some diseases people can overcome with the right treatment; however, there are some diseases that are a life long battle even with a treatment. An excellent example is diabetes. There are two types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed in adulthood. Type 1 diabetes is important but it only affects a small amount of the population mainly adolescence while Type 2 diabetes affects a large portion of the population making it more of a priority. The first step into understanding any disease is to find out how it is caused, its onset of symptoms, and finally the cure or treatment for it, but diabetes is one of many diseases without a cure. Diabetes is a life long struggle that can only be contained through life style changes and regular monitoring. Diabetes is a disease wherein the body is not able to control the amount of sugar like glucose in the blood. The blood delivers glucose to provide the body with energy to perform daily activities. The liver changes the food a person consumes into glucose. Subsequently, the glucose is released into the bloodstream. Ã¢â¬Å"In a healthy person, the blood glucose level is regulated by several hormones primarily insulin. Insulin is produced by the pancreas, a small organ between the stomach and liver. The pancreas also makes other important enzymes released directly into the gut that helps us digest food. Insulin allows glucose to move out of the blood into cells throughout the body where it is used for fuel.Ã¢â¬ The scenarios of people with diabetes is that there are some that do not produce enough insulin which is type 1 diabetes or the other type is with people that cannot use insulin properly which is type 2 diabetes (Pollin).... ...://www.emedicinehealth.com/diabetes/article_em.htm>. Gorman, Christine. "Health: Why So Many Of Us Are Getting Diabetes - TIME." Breaking News, Analysis, Politics, Blogs, News Photos, Video, Tech Reviews - TIME.com. Time Magazine. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. . Garcia, Malcolm. "For Diabetes Patients, Oases in the Food Desert." Chicago Tribune. 01 Feb. 2012. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. . Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.. "Diabetes." Genetics. 2003. Encyclopedia.com. 20 Feb. 2012 . Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Diabetes: Causes - MayoClinic.com." Mayo Clinic. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. .
Sunday, November 10, 2019
MEDICAL TOURISM IN SOUTH INDIA Ã¢â¬â A SWOT PERSPECTIVE OF INDIAN MEDICINE SYSTEM J. Swaminathan AVCCE Health is wealth! (Ayurveda To Yoga) ABSTRACT The Indian Systems of Medicine include Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy is ancient and has the roots in traditional system of medical treatments in tune with the Mother Nature. Medical Tourism is the emerging industry next to the IT boom and India is the second best destination as of now. Especially the Indian Systems of Medicine, in South India can become the leader in medical Tourism Industry. This paper tries to appraise the facts and future possibilities based on a SWOT perspective. Introduction Without sound health we cannot achieve anything in our life, nor enjoy what ever we have. In service sector the concept of Medical Tourism is catching up at lightning speed across the world. The act of traveling to other countries for medical, surgical and other forms of healthcare along with recreation is called Medical Tourism. People from advanced countries, including the United States and Europe, see a benefit in traveling to developing third world countries, like India, Thailand, Philippines, South Africa, and etc. hile combining medical treatments with inexpensive vacation. According to a study conducted by the Confederation of Indian Industry and Mc Kinsey consultants (2004), 1,50,000 foreigners visited India for treatment, with the number rising by 15 percent a year. The number has increased to 2, 72,000 in 2007 and has crossed the 3 lakhs mark in 2008. ASSOCHAM has predi cted that this will grow by 22 to 25% in the coming years. Scope The main demand for medical tourism is generated from millions of Indians who live abroad, though a growing number of foreigners are also keen on speedy and in expensive treatment. They are influenced by two important facts: India now has many world-class private hospitals and the alternative medicines are available in abundance. Foreigners are visiting India for serious medical help as well as rejuvenation therapies and other specific purposes. Medical Tourism has been a popular concept in countries like Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Costa Rica, Hungary, India, Israel, Jordan, and Lithuania. South Africa specializes in medical Safaris-visit the country for a safari, with a stock over for plastic surgery. Due to liberalization of our economy and internalization of health care profession, India has entered the industry in only recent times. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate hospitals are fully equipped with up market and efficiency. The Indian Systems of Medicine also has become a valid reason for them especially in preventive cure and alternative medicines. Medical Tourism is poised to be the next Indian success story after Information Technology. According to recent study of ASSOCHAM, in 2008 the size of industry was estimated Rs 1500 crore and it would grow into Rs. 9500 crores by 2015 with an annual growth rate of 30 %. The Indian government has predicted that IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s $ 17 billion Ã¢â¬âa-year health care industry would grow by 13% in next four years. Indian Systems of Medicine (ISM) The Indian Systems of Medicine include Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy together characterized under the department of AYUSH in the union health and family welfare ministry. During the ninth plan, with an expenditure of more than Rs. 1,000 crore, a quantum jump in outlays on schemes for development and promotion of AYUSH system of medicine has been achieved during Tenth and Eleventh Plan. Indians are known for their hospitality and warmth. India has an incomparably rich heritage in ancient systems of medicine that make up a veritable treasure house of knowledge for both preventive and curative health care. Around 1000 BC when Indian Systems of Medicine (ISM) were fully documented in Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. Thus, ISM is considered to be one of the oldest organized systems of medicine for positive health and cure of human sickness. The most important and massive ancient compilation of the school of medicine is known as Charaka Samhita. It contains several chapters dealing at length with internal medicine. About six hundred drugs of plant, animal and mineral origin are described in it. But traditional medicine was ignored when western medical knowledge and procedures were introduced into the country. Once again the same has regained its limelight. Ayurveda : Ayurveda means the Ã¢â¬Å"science of lifeÃ¢â¬ in Sanskrit. It is one of oldest and the best documented among the ancient systems of medicine. From the Charaka Samhita (600 B. C) and the Susruta samhita. Yoga & Naturopathy : Yoga is not really a system of medicine. Its objectives are self- realization and spiritual union with all Ã¢â¬âpervasive divine cosmic power. But certain intermediary practices and yogic attitudes have proved beneficial for reducing stress, preventing many lifestyle-related diseases, and promoting general health and well being. Naturopathy is based on the fundamental principles of airbed. The basic tenet of Naturopathy is to live according to the laws of nature: disease occurs due to the accumulation of toxins in the body, and to cure the ailment, the body is purified with the use of natural methods, dietary regulations and exercise. Unani : The Unani system originated in the fourth and fifth century BC in Greece under the patronage of Hippocrates (460BC-377)and Galen. The system is based on the humoural theory that good health depends on the balance of the four humours: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. Siddha : Siddha means a Ã¢â¬Å"masterÃ¢â¬ thus the name denoted the mastery of such practices. The most famous of the siddha was Nagarjuna, whose rasatantra forms the basis of this system. The distinctive features of siddha are its reliance on minerals and metallic compounds, and its emphasis on rejuvenation therapies. Homeopathy : The term homeopathy comes from the Greek word Ã¢â¬Ë homiosÃ¢â¬â¢ means like and Ã¢â¬ËpathosÃ¢â¬â¢ means suffering. Homeopathy works by looking at the symptoms, will take into account the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s mental, physical, emotional,and spiritual health before deciding the treatment. Homeopathy is based on the principles that Ã¢â¬Ëlike cures likeÃ¢â¬â¢. Current State of Affairs The American Medical Association (AMA) has conducted a cost comparison study of health care in different countries. The surgical procedures and the dental treatment procedures have a cost advantage Ã¢â¬â approximately 1/6th of the cost in USA. Also the waiting period for even a simple surgery is minimum 6 months and specialty treatments are 9-12 months in USA / UK which is almost instant in India. AMA has proved though there are many countries less expensive than USA, India is the least expensive compared to European and Asian countries. Table 1: Summary of Medical care, Medical Manpower facilities available under Indian Systems of Medicine Facilities |Ayurveda |Unani |Siddha |Yoga |Naturopathy |Homeopathy | | | | | | | | | |Total | |Hospitals |2398 |268 |231 |8 |18 |230 |3203 | |Beds |42963 |4489 |2401 |135 |722 |10851 |61561 | |Dispensaries |13914 |1010 |464 |71 |56 |5836 |21351 | |Registered |453661 |46558 |6381 |0 |888 |217850 |725338 | |Practitioners | | | | | | | | Source: Department of Ayush, Ã¢â¬â- Health & Family welfare, Government of India. The Indian Systems of Medicine is given more importance in southern India. The state like Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and other states in India plays a key role in medical tourism. Kerala-The Pioneer State Kerala has pioneered health tourisim in India. Kerala has strongly focused on Ayurveda and its wide array of treatments and medications, good facilities are also available in other traditional forms of medicine as well as in modern medical treatment. Kerala is Capitalizing on its Rich Cultural Heritage and alternate Medical Therapies. KarnatakaÃ¢â¬â¢s Foray The government of Karnataka has ambitious plans to make Karnataka the top health tourism destination not only in India but internationally. In fact, the government is setting up a Bangalore International Health City Corporation for provision of a wide variety health care products and treatments. Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu has multi speciality hospitals that offer the best medical treatment at surprisingly low rates. In the state various other forms of medicine, viz, Siddha, Ayurveda, Unani, Nature Therapy and Yoga are also practiced, which the foreigners are inclined to patronize. The Tourism Department is taking steps to promote the Ã¢â¬Å"illness to wellnessÃ¢â¬ concept by developing tourism with health care. Andhra Pradesh The famous Nizamia General Hospital is the one of its kind probably in the whole world to use Unani system of medicine, since 1938 and treating almost 1500 outpatients every day. The state made rejuvenation theraphy , alternative medicine, yoga and traditional healing systems as its main tourist attraction. MaharastraÃ¢â¬â¢s Unlimited Potential This state, as a gateway to India, offers tremendous potential to develop medical tourism. The latest addition in Mumbai is the Asian Heart Institute at Bandra-Kurla complex, which offers state-of-the art facilities for all types of heart complications and even preventive cardiological treatment to avoid heart alignments and keep under control a host of heart problems. This institute in collaborating with the Cleveland Institute, U. S. A offers Ã¢â¬ËFive StarÃ¢â¬â¢ services at reasonable prices. Medical Infrastructure In India, it is estimated that there are 15,000 hospitals, 8,75,000 hospital beds, 5,00,000 doctors, 7,37,000 Nurses, 170 medical colleges, 3, 50,000 retail chemist outlets. Around 18,000 new doctors are added every year. Almost 80,000 additional beds are still required. Given below is a SWOT Analysis of the Indian Systems of Medicine and Medical Tourism Industry in its current state: |STRENGTHS |WEAKNESS | |Quality Service at Affordable Cost |No strong government support / initiative to promote medical | |Vast supply of qualified doctors |tourism | |International Reputation of ospitals and Doctors |Low Coordination between the various players in the industryÃ¢â¬â | |Diversity of tourism destinations and Experiences |airline operators, hotels and hospitals | |Traditional and Ancient systems of Medicine |Customer Perception as an unhygienic country | | |No proper accreditation and regulation system for hospitals | | |Lack of uniform pricing policies across Hospitals | |OPPORTUN ITIES |THREATS | |Fast-paced life style increases demand for wellness tourism and |Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strong competition from countries like Thailand, Malaysia and | |alternative cures. |Singapore. |Increased demand and Shortage of supply in National Health |Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lack of international accreditation Ã¢â¬â a major inhibitor. | |Systems in countries like UK, Canada. |Ã¢â¬ ¢ Overseas medical care not covered by insurance providers. | |Demand from countries with underdeveloped healthcare facilities. |Ã¢â¬ ¢ Under Ã¢â¬â investment in health infrastructure. | |Demand for retirement homes for elderly people especially |Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identifying a real and ideal practitioner is a major problem in| |Japanese. |India. | |Personal touch by the doctors in India. |Ã¢â¬ ¢ Exploitation of tourists | |Traffic system is well developed and easy to go from one country | | |to another country. | |Medicines and labour cost is low as compared to developed | | |countries. | | Role of Government The role of Indian Government for success in medical tourism in Indian Systems of Medicines are Ã¢â¬ ¢ To Regulate functioning of hospitals to build consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ trust. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To encourage private investment and FDI in medical infrastructure and policymaking for improving medical tourism. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To provide conducive fiscal policies Ã¢â¬â providing low interest rate loans, reducing import/excise duty for medical equipment. To Facilitate hassle free visa process and institute visa-on-arrival for patients. The government should 1. Build the ISM Brand Abroad based on Ã¢â¬â high quality service, value for money and destination diversity. 2. Promote Inter-Sectoral Coordination like aligning the activities of various players Ã¢â¬â Tourism Department, Transport Operators, Hotel Associations, Escorts personnel etc. 3. Information Dissemination using Technology about ISMI and enabling online transactions. 4. Standardization of Services like pricing, hygiene and quality standards. Role o f Private Sector 1. Increased participation in building infrastructure 2. Integrate Horizontally by providing end-to-end healthcare solutions to consumers. 3. Joint Ventures / Alliances: Tie ups with foreign institutions MEDICITIES Ã¢â¬â A self-sustained healthcare hub with super specialty hospitals of international standards, ancillary facilities, research institutions, health resort, rehabilitation centers and residential apartments may be floated through a public-private partnership. Conclusion : IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s growing economy and the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s high cost medical treatments are the bright opportunities for promoting Medical Tourism. To gain an competitive advantage over other countries the government may use our unique, ancient and traditional Indian Systems of Medicine as a USP and can participate in developing the needed infrastructure facilities, creating network and connectivity with health, tourism and other related industries, tie-ups with other countries. The sky is open for ISM Medical Tourism.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Seconds Pronouns used when a speaker addresses one or more individuals. In contemporary standard English, these are the second-person pronouns: you (singular and plural personal pronoun)yours (singular and plural possessive pronoun)yourself and yourselves (singular and plural reflexive/intensive pronouns) In addition, your is the second-person possessive determiner. As discussed below, other second-person pronouns (such as thee, thou, and ye) have been used in the past, and some (such as yall and yous[e]) are still used today in certain dialects of English. Examples: You either die a hero or you live long enough to see yourself become the villain.Ã (Christian Bale as Batman in The Dark Knight, 2008)Do you know whats waiting beyond that beach? Immortality! Take it! Its yours! (Brad Pitt as Achilles in Troy, 2004)The key to faking out the parents is the clammy hands. Its a good non-specific symptom... What you do is, you fake a stomach cramp, and when youre bent over, moaning and wailing, you lick your palms. Its a little childish and stupid, but then, so is high school.Ã (Matthew Broderick as Ferris in Ferris Buellers Day Off, 1986)Laila came over here to braid yalls hair, but left cause yall wasnt here.Ã (Jesmyn Ward, Where the Line Bleeds. Agate Bolden, 2008)I hope the good white people round here kill all yall off.Ã (Ernest J. Gaines, The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman, 1971)But I need to ask you guys a big favor.Ask and you shall receive, my son, said Tradd.Ã (Pat Conroy, The Lords of Discipline, 1980(Be off, Im tellin yous, your selves an your pound on demand! (Sean OCasey, Five Irish Plays, 1935) Drive thy business, or it will drive thee.Ã (Benjamin Franklin)Ye have not chosen Me, but I have chosen you, and ordained you, that ye should go and bring forth fruit.Ã (John 15: 16, The King James Bible, 1611)Thou shalt prepare thee a way, and divide the coasts of thy land, which the Lord thy God giveth thee to inherit.Ã (Deuteronomy, 19:3, The King James Bible, 1611)O world, I cannot hold thee close enough!Thy winds, thy wide grey skies!Thy mists, that roll and rise!Thy woods, this autumn day, that ache and sagAnd all but cry with colour! That gaunt cragTo crush!Ã To lift the lean of that black bluff!World, World, I cannot get thee close enough!(Edna St. Vincent Millay, Gods World. Renascence and Other Poems, 1917) Observations: [R]esearch has found that the inclusion of second-person pronouns in a message increases peoples motivation to attend to a message (Burnkrant Unnava, 1989).Ã¢â¬â¹(David R. Roskos-Ewoldsen, What Is the Role of Rhetorical Questions in Persuasion? Communication and Emotion: Essays in Honor of Dolf Zillmann, ed. by Jennings Bryant et al. Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003) Thou and Ye Forms As early as the late thirteenth century, the second person plural forms (ye, you, your) began to be used with singular meaning in circumstances of politeness or formality, leaving the singular forms (thou, thee, thy/thine) for intimate, familiar use. In imitation of the French use of vous and tu, the English historically plural y-forms were used in addressing a superior, whether by virtue of social status or age and in upper-class circles among equals, though high-born lovers might slip into the th-forms in situations of intimacy. The th-forms were also used by older to younger and by socially superior to socially inferior.Ã (John Algeo and Thomas Payne, The Origin and Development of the English Language, 5th ed. Thomson Wadsworth, 2005) Ye and You In early Middle English, ye was used in subject position, and it marked plurality, whilst you was used in object position, also marking plurality... Singularity was marked by thee and thou. In the fourteenth century, this system began to change, and you began to be used in subject position, as today. As you usage increased over the fifteenth century, ye and you began to lose their function of marking plurality, and by the end of the period they were used for both singular and plural referents, in both subject and object position.Ã (Peter Brown, A Companion to Medieval English Literature and Culture C.1350 - C.1500. Blackwell, 2007) Ã Thou and You Thou ... had in Old English been used when addressing only one person, and you when addressing more. By the sixteenth century, this had changed; the difference was social, with thou expressing intimacy or possibly condescension, while you was chillier or more respectful. The distinction disappeared in the seventeenth century from written English, and from most spoken English also, though one may still hear it in Yorkshireit is memorably frequent in Barry Hiness novel A Kestrel for a Knave, set in 1960s Barnsley. By contrast, other languages in Western Europe continue to draw such a distinction: in some, notably French, it is important, while in others, such as Spanish and Swedish, the formal address is now not much used. Todays yous, widely heard in Ireland, and youse, heard on Merseyside and in Australia, revive and make explicit the difference between the plural you and the singular. So, too, does the American yall.Ã (Henry Hitchings, The Language Wars. John Murray, 2011) Plurals: Yall, Yalls, All yalls and You Guys Since you was now both singular and plural, how could you make clear that you were speaking to more than one?In the United States, the best the North can do is the casual you guys. But the South has found a comfortable solution: yall...Clear evidence that yall is one word instead of two is the possessive form yalls. For example, Mamos Garlic Sauce of Austin, Texas, posts on its website a collection of Yalls Recipes ...Some Southerners dont accept the explanation that yall is the plural of you. They insist that yall is just another way of saying you, with either singular or plural meaning. They contend that to make a plural, you must say all yall...But for now many Southerners still would reject the notion that yall can be properly applied to only one person.Ã (Allan A. Metcalf, How We Talk: American Regional English Today. Houghton Mifflin, 2000) A Users Guide to Yall Let me offer a quick userÃ¢â¬â¢s guide to yÃ¢â¬â¢all, because thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot of bad information floating around on the internet. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a contraction of you all, obviously, a phrase with the same structure and purpose as the British you lot. The southern iteration is naturally disposed to being contracted, although people do use the expanded you all. In general, it seems you all is more likely to be the object, while yÃ¢â¬â¢all is the subject, although rhythm is probably the most important factor. Another iteration is all yÃ¢â¬â¢all, which is used to encompass an entire group in situations where, because the group has natural subsets, ambiguity might otherwise emerge.No matter what you might have heard, yÃ¢â¬â¢all should not be used as a singular. (E.G. Austin, YÃ¢â¬â¢all Hear This. The Economist, Sep. 19, 2011)
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Philosophy - Essay Example This means that laws of nature work with other events to act as forerunners that necessitate every occurrence. Soft determinism, also known as compatibilism, is the conviction that the ideas of determinism and free will are compatible (Loux 38). Therefore, one can believe in determinism and free will and still be logically consistent. Here, according to American philosopher William James, free will is the liberty to act according to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation. However, he also points out that an individual can do their will but cannot control what they will to do. On the other hand, hard determinism, also known as metaphysical determinism, agrees that determinism is true but not compatible to free will. Therefore, free will, according to hard determinism, is non-existent. Hard determinism positions itself relative to other determinism forms in which the future is necessitated in its entirety. Question Two Epistemology, also termed as the theory of knowledge, is a subdivision of philosop hy that deals with the scope and nature of knowledge (Nelson 1). Epistemology examines the theory of the limits, nature and origin of knowledge by focusing on its meaning, acquisition and the degree to which an entity can possibly be known. Epistemology discusses three kinds of knowledge, which are Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge by acquaintanceÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge howÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge thatÃ¢â¬ . For example, it is mathematically Ã¢â¬Å"known thatÃ¢â¬ 1+1=2, and people also Ã¢â¬Å"know howÃ¢â¬ to calculate sums. Then, there is the aspect of knowing an activity, a thing, a place or a person (Boyle 86). The disagreement between empiricism and rationalism is concerned with the extent to which people are dependent on sense experience in their effort to acquire knowledge. While empiricists opine that the definitive source of all knowledge and concepts is sense experience, rationalists hold that significant ways exist in which knowledge and concepts are acquired independently of sense experience (Duncan 611). In rationalism, the most significant knowledge draws from using reason. This, therefore, means that rationalism verifies a priori, or Ã¢â¬Å"prior knowledgeÃ¢â¬ as most significant kind of knowledge. Both Spinoza and Descartes associated using reason with mathematics. They both believed in seeking metaphysical truths whose reliability can be likened to mathematics. There is a metaphysical tendency in rationalists, since they portray notions like essence and substance. Rationalism also agrees with theology, which can be seen in SpinozaÃ¢â¬â¢s and DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ thought that the existence of God can rationally be demonstrated (Boyle 114). Empiricism, which is hostile to religion and metaphysics, aligns itself with natural sciences. Empiricism, therefore, believes that knowledge stems from experience, and any notion not based on experience is questionable. Empiricists like Hume, Berkeley and Locke do not believe in innate knowledge. They opine tha t it must be from experience, either from the five senses or reasoning through the brain (Duncan 610). The innate knowledge thesis states that there is knowledge of various truths in certain subject areas, say, S, as part of human rationale nature. However, empiricism about a certain subject does not agree with the analogous version of the innate knowledge thesis. Question Three Ethics is the discipline of moral righteousness of human acts as guided by the
Friday, November 1, 2019
Morality And Business - Essay Example But here, the key fact to be noted is that, the existing laws have authorized these false claims, to a certain extent. Here, the obvious implication is that most of the businesses need to adhere to ethics, only to the extent dictated by the law. Beyond that, most of the entities are in no way willing to tread on the path of morality, lest their commercial motives are compromised. (1) Whether staunch adherents of morality like it or not, but the fact is that businesses cannot afford to lay excess emphasis on ethics, barring the legal stipulations. This is even more relevant in this contemporary era of heightened competition. There is no way in which business houses can survive in the markets if they choose to give tremendous weight to moralistic ideals. In the context of the subject being focused upon in this paper, the only candid response is Ã¢â¬Å"Yes! It is not moral to do business!Ã¢â¬ Here, it has to be specifically mentioned that this particular response is addressed to only those who believe that, come what may, there should not be even a minute deviation from the ethical principles. (1) Of course, there is no denying of the fact that, even in this day, there are business organizations running the extra mile in sticking to some aspects of morality. In most of these cases, this results from the entities being committed to any particular social cause, or being associated with any non-profit organizations. Whatever may be the driving force behind the moral commitment of a business, the key point is that it is their voluntary decision to address various ethical issues. The law in no way mandates that business houses do stick to all the norms that fall under the purview of morality. (1) A brief focus on another real life example would make one to comprehend as to why morality, after a certain point, has no place in business practices. When the matter of deliberations between management and trade union is taken, the irrefutable fact is that both the parties conceal the truth from each other. It is also a fact that when viewed only from the angle of ethics, lying is highly improper. But in this example, both the parties are aware that the other party is lying, and owing to this, it just cannot be expected that there is a scope for speaking the truth. As a matter of fact, in this example, if either of the party decides that there is nothing greater than being moralistic and that they should speak only the truth, then there would be only one consequence: Its interests would be compromised at the altar of moralistic idealism. (1) It is not that all the arguments are only one side; there are people who strongly argue that businesses can further their commercial objectives, even by laying lot of emphasis on ethical norms. For example, an argument here is that when a company, by adhering to morals, manufactures safe products, the same would drastically minimize the chances of facing suits related to product liability. This in turn makes sure that even the financial resources of the company are safeguarded. For, it is but obvious that severe financial implications are inevitable while facing legal suits.