Monday, September 30, 2019

Communication Essay

In this assignment I will be explaining which each of the different forms of communication are and describing them in more detail and giving examples of each one. In health and social care we need communication skills are vital for anyone who wants to work within this environment. One to one communication is basically one person communication with another person but nobody else will be joining in the conversation. Other ways of having a one to one communication could be sending an email to someone and them replying or instant messaging someone. An example of having a one to one communication within health and Social care would be when a patient is talking to his/her doctor or a doctor talking to a patient’s family. Group communication is harder than one to one communication skills because it only works properly if everyone within the group is communication. This is very hard because normally within a group there is people who talk a lot and some who rarely talk or sometimes people who do not talk at all. An example of group communication would be when people go to an AA meeting. If you have no idea what an AA meeting is its Alcohol Anonymous so people who are alcoholics go to there to try and stop drinking. Formal communication is normally used by a professional. It is normally started with a polite greeting like â€Å"how are you today? † or â€Å"Good Morning† because they want to show respect to you. People normally use formal communication when in a meeting or a conference. In this type of communication using slang words or foul language like swearing is avoided and correct pronunciation is used. An example of this would be if a staff member isn’t working as good as they should be then the manager would have to give them a warning so they would have to use the correct use of wording so that they won’t think they are getting fired. Informal Communication is normally used with people who you are close with or know very well like family, friends and boyfriends. Informal Communication is the opposite of formal communication. It is usually used when in face to face conversation with a friend or relative- a personally known person. Informal communication is also used in e-mail, texts, and telephone conversations. An example of this would be in some areas it is common to call people love even though you have only just met them. Verbal communication is using words to tell your ideas, thoughts and feelings. Good verbal communication skills are being able to express your ideas clearly through your words. An example of this is by showing video’s you are helping the client to listen, by making hear a tape they are also listening, helping them to read books allows them to reading words and so on and understand them. Non-verbal communication is sending out message without speaking. You can send messages using your eyes, the tone of your voice, facial expression, hands and arms, gestures, the angle of your head and body posture. Within a few seconds of meeting a service user most people will usually be able to what they are feeling. You will be able to tell if they are tired, happy, angry or sad even before they haven’t said anything. You can tell what people are feeling by the use of body language. Now I will be explaining the non verbal messages which we send by using our bodies. The ones I will be talking about are posture, gestures,facial expression, touch or contact, use of signs, symbols and pictures, objects of references, writing, technology aids. Voice tone is basically the way you say something. If you say something in a loud voice people may seem you as angry and if you say something in a calm voice it will show that you are friendly. An example of this would be if you say â€Å"Hello, are you having a good morning† then this will show that you are friendly. Posture is the way you sit or stand. Sitting with crossed arms normally means you’re not taking any notice. Leaning back can send the message that you are relaxed or bored which leaning forward means you are interested. Posture is the way you sit or stand. Sitting with crossed arms can mean you’re not taking any notice. When you are leaning back can send the message that you are bored or not interested and when you are leaning forward it shows that you are interested in the conversation. An example in a health and social care setting would be when you are talking to a child at a school then you would be leaning forward to make sure the child knows you are interested in the conversation. Gestures are hand and arm movements that can help us to understand what a person is saying. Some gestures carry a meaning of their own. When you do something that is a success most people will put their thumbs up and if you do something perfection most people will put one hand on their waist and do a circle with their hands. You can tell what a person is feeling or thinking by the way they have their eyes. Your eyes get wider when you are excited or attracted to someone. A fixed stare may send the message that someone is angry at the person who she/he is staring at. When someone is looking away when they are talking to you it means they are not interested. Standing or sitting eye to eye can send a message of formality or hostility. A slight angle can create a more relaxed and friendly feeling. Touching another person during a conversation can send message of care, affection, power over them or sexual interest. Gestures made with hands or arms, written symbols or diagrams such as traffic signs all communicate message to people. Braille is a form of written language for the blind, in which characters are represented by patterns of raised dots that are felt with the fingertips. An example of braille being used in the health and social sector would be a blind person maybe reading a letter in braille sent from hospital concerning their health; they’d have to feel the dots to understand what has been written. Paintings, photographs, sculptures, architecture, ornaments and other household objects can communicate messages and emotions to people. People often take photographs or buy souvenirs to remind them of happy experiences they have had. Language does not have to be based on sounds that are hears. Signing systems such as Sign Language provide a full language system for people who do not use spoken language. An example of sign language would be if someone needs help with their hearing difficulties. Written Communication is where someone talks by writing a letter or an email. An example of written communication would be if someone is trying to get a care assistant job will be sending their cv of by an email. Technological aids – Humans can communicate across distance and time by using written messages, email and text messages. Information can be recorded electronically, helping us to communication more efficiently than writing on paper. Electronic aids can turn speech into writing such as mini com for people with a hearing disability or voice typing for people with dyslexia. AN interpreter is someone who can translate speech. A signer is someone who can use sign language to speak. A translator is a person who translates one language to another. Lip reading is an aid to communication for Deaf and hard of hearing people. Lip-reading classes help regain confidence and lessen the feelings of isolation that so often come with hearing loss. Most people misunderstand deafness. It’s invisible and doesn’t change the way you appear to other people, but it can change the way you feel. You may: * Feel excluded from everyday activities and conversations * Find it difficult to cope in some situations * Feel frustrated when trying to communicate with people around you Makaton is a language programme designed to provide a means of communication to individuals who cannot communicate efficiently by speaking.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

The Great Gatsby Chapter 1-5 Summaries

In Chapter 1, the narrator introduces himself as Nick Carraway and talks about himself and his father. He describes himself as tolerant but fails to realizes his views are very biased and speaks with pity to those who â€Å"haven't had the advantages that you've had,† as his father says. Nick comes from a well-known Mid-Western family, and graduated from Yale (as his ancestors have) in 1915. After fighting in World War I, he comes home restless and decides to learn the bond business. His father finances Nick for a year and Nick lives in a house on West Egg. He talks about West and East Egg.West Egg is the less fashionable of the two, and consists of new money. He lives between Gatsby's mansion and another millionaire. East Egg consists of old money people, and that is where his cousin, Daisy, and her husband, Tom Buchanan, live. Tom was one of Nick's classmates at Yale who played football professionally and came from a wealthy family. The Buchanans invite Nick over for dinner, and Nick meets Daisy's friend, Jordan Baker. She is a professional golfer and seems to be bored of being wealthy. At dinner, Tom talks about the book, â€Å"The Rise of the Colored Empires†, and readers learn that Tom is pro-white dominance.Dinner is interrupted by a phone call for Tom, and Jordan tells Nick that it's a phone call from Tom's lover in New York. Daisy and Nick catch up in private out on the veranda. After dinner, everyone chats in a crimson room and when Jordan heads to sleep, Daisy jokes that Jordan and Nick should marry each other. Soon, Nick heads home and sees Gatsby on his dock reaching out his hand across the Sound. Chapter 2 begins with a description of the valley of ashes which is located between West Egg and New York. The area is a barren wasteland and a large billboard with Doctor T. J. Eckleburg's eyes decay in the valley.Tom takes Nick to the valley of ashes so he can meet Tom's mistress. They arrive at George Wilson's garage on the edge of the val ley of ashes and meet with him and his wife, Myrtle. Tom then forces Myrtle (his mistress) and Nick to his flat in New York and throws an improper small party with Myrtle's sister, Catherine, and a couple named McKee. The group then gossips about Jay Gatsby and Catherine claims that he is somehow related to Kaiser Wilhelm, the despised ruler of Germany during World War I. As the group gets more drunk, Myrtle begins to act harsh and almost teenage-like.Catherine states that the only reason Tom hasn't left Daisy is because Daisy is Catholic, and Catholics don't believe in divorce. Nick is surprised by such an accusation because he knows that Daisy is not Catholic. Myrtle then talks about how she never loved her husband, and she made the biggest mistake marrying him. Later, Tom gives Myrtle a puppy as a gift, and the drinking goes on. Sometime after, Myrtle starts chanting Daisy's name, and Tom punches her in the face, breaking her nose. Chapter 3 begins with Nick's description of Gats by's Saturday night parties.These parties are extremely lavish, and earned the reputation of being one of the best parties in New York. Guests gather to admire Gatsby's Rolls Royce and enormous swimming pool, eat delicious food, enjoy the live band, and drink unlimited amounts of alcohol that Gatsby supplies everyone with. Eventually, Gatsby's chauffeur brings an invitation to Nick's door and Nick heads over the next day. When he arrives, the mansion is already packed with anyone and everyone. Many attendees were not invited, even more have not met Gatsby face to face.The crowd is mixed, with people from West Egg and East Egg, and people from New York and some that weren't high up on the social ladder. Nick then runs into Jordan Baker, and they hear rumors among the crowd about Gatsby. Nick and Jordan roam around to try to find Gatsby, and at first end up in Gatsby's library. In his library, they meet a man they call Owl Eyes, who is fascinated by the fact that all the books in the library are real. Afterward, they head out to the garden and begin talking to a man that is young and handsome. He tells them that he served in the same division as Nick in the war.He then introduces himself as Gatsby. Gatsby leaves to take a phone call, but tells one of his servants to seek out Jordan Baker to tell her he needs to speak with her in private. A few hours later, Jordan comes out of the library and tells Nick the conversation was â€Å"simply amazing. † Before Nick leaves, Gatsby invites him to go hydroplaning the next morning and Nick agrees to go. As Nick leaves the mansion, fifty feet from the door, he sees that a car has landed in a ditch. He sees Owl Eyes there and the whole situation is very bizarre. Nick then breaks off to talk about his overall summer of 1922.He states that he did not only attend parties all summer long, but also worked in New York. He met again with Jordan in midsummer, and realized that she had cheated in a golf tournament. Although he knows that Jordan lies constantly, he is still somehow attracted to her. In Chapter 4, Nick returns to one of Gatsby's Sunday morning parties, and he hears a couple of young ladies gossip about Gatsby. They say he is a bootlegger and killed a man because he found out. On another morning, Gatsby invites Nick to lunch in the city. Gatsby then asks Nick what he thinks of him.Nick is very evasive in the way he responds. Gatsby then tells Nick about his past, claiming to be from a MidWestern family and says he is from the city of San Francisco. He then goes on to say that he studied at Oxford and lived in all of the capitals of Europe. And that he enlisted in the war effort, where he was quickly promoted to major and celebrated by every Allied government. Gatsby even pulls out a picture of himself at Oxford and also a medal with his name on it from Montenegro. Gatsby drives very fast through the valley of ashes and is pulled over by a policeman for speeding.Gatsby shows the policeman a white card and the policeman apologizes and doesn't give him a ticket. At lunch, Gatsby introduces Carraway to Meyer Wolfsheim, who is a Jewish man that is an infamous gambler and who claims to have fixed the 1919 World Series. Wolfsheim proudly shows Nick his arm cuff that is made of human molars. Nick soon believes that Gatsby is involved in dark business. After Wolfsheim leaves the restaurant, Nick spots Tom at a table and introduces Gatsby to him. Gatsby is visibly uncomfortable around Tom and leaves suddenly without an explanation.The next time Nick meets with Jordan, she tells him that Gatsby is in love with Daisy. She says that back in 1917, both Daisy and Gatsby volunteered at the Red Cross and Daisy madly fell in love with him. She promised that she would wait for Gatsby to return from war, but while he was away, Tom proposed to her and she accepted. The night before Daisy's wedding, she had realized her huge mistake and drank herself to insanity. Jordan tells Nick that the only reason why Gatsby bought his mansion on West Egg was to be directly across the bay from Daisy.Nick then realizes why Gatsby was on his dock reaching out to the green light across the Sound (because the light is the light on the end of Daisy's dock). Jordan then tells Nick that Gatsby wanted him to arrange a meeting for himself and Daisy at Nick's house. In Chapter 5, the night Nick returns home after talking to Jordan, he sees that Gatsby's mansion is lit from top to bottom. Nick is approached by an eager and nervous Gatsby, and Nick tells him that he has spoken with Jordan. In return for helping him, Gastby offers Nick an under-the-table job that hasn't anything to do with Wolfsheim.Nick is offended by his wish to pay him back for setting up the meeting, and declines the offer. On the day that Gatsby and Daisy are to meet, it begins to rain. When Daisy first arrives, the tension and conversations are very awkward between them. Gatsby is so nervous to be around Daisy that he k nocks over Nick's clock. Nick tells Gatsby to calm down, and leaves them alone for a short while. When Nick returns, he sees that they have just finished hugging and Daisy has joyful tears on her cheeks. They are much more relaxed and comfortable around one another, and they head over to Gatbsy's mansion.Gatsby shows them around, first at some luxurious shirts imported from Europe, and Daisy bursts into tears. Then looking out from a window, Gatsby tells Daisy that he can see the green light at the end of her dock when the night air is clear. After, Gatsby wakes Ewing Klipspringer so he can play â€Å"Ain't We Got Fun† on the piano. While the music floats around in the room, Nick thinks to himself that Daisy will not be able to live up to Gatsby's standards and forget the last five years has ever happened. As Gatsby and Daisy get closer, Nick realizes it is time for him to leave and starts walking home.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Duty of care Essay

1.1+1.2 Sometimes individuals may want to do something which could be a risk to their health and safety. Being a staff member means having a duty of care to that person, it includes doing everything possible to keep them safe, but also having a duty to respect the individuals rights and choice, therefore there is a dilemma. It could be that the individual no longer wishes to use their walking frame, but their care plan states that they need it to move from place to place and as a member of staff, their responsibility is to ensure and encourage the use of the walking frame for the individual. In this scenario a risk assessment could be carried out to ensure that it is managed as safely as possible. The risks would need to be explained that are involved to the individual and make sure they understand. The staff could come to a compromise, to use a stick for a while instead, to see how they managed, then monitor the situation. All this should be documented including any risk assessment carried out. If the individual still insists on walking unaided they should sign to say they are aware of the risks involved. Another scenario could be that an individual refuses to take their medication. Remind them of why they take the medication and it’s benefits and again advise them of the risks involved in not taking their medication. If they still refuse, ensure this is noted on their medication record and reported so others are aware if a problem occurs. If the individual insists on doing something which is unsafe or risky that is their choice it must be respected as it’s their right, but there is a duty of care to uphold and everything must be done to keep them safe for their individual’s rights. Conflicts could arise between staff to staff. One staff member may think that there is an issue. An example of this is that a member of staff may think a child is a slow developer, and may need additional support to help them, such as with their communication skills. Another staff member may think that there is no issue the child is just developing at their own pace and that it is normal. Everybody has individual rights, they have rights against the duty of care therefore children and parents have the right to privacy, but it is the staffs duty of care to safeguard, therefore any concerns that may arise about abuse would override their privacy, as the duty of care is much stronger. This has the dilemma of making parent feel  that the staff has taken the duty of care too far, as the duty of care has been overridden their right to privacy, their right still exists to only knows that need to no. It is important that issues are raised in such way that shows concern for a child, and not criticising a parent/carer. If a discussion needs to take place, it needs to be where the staff and parent are alone to remain confidentiality with a clear focus on the child’s best interests. 2.3 There are many organisations that are in place to get additional support and advice about conflicts and dilemmas. Learning support is one of these, having learning support in the setting for children with learning difficulties can be a great help, however if the child does not want to seek the help, the staff can only advise them, not force them, however having them in the setting the child would then know they can seek help from them when needed. Speech and behavioural therapists are another additional support for those with speech impairments and behavioural problems, these can come in the help children communicate and feel a part of the setting, and not feel ‘different’ from others around them. The setting can seek advice from child protection, as if there is a worry about a child, the manager can contact them for advice on what to do and if the concern is a serious matter that needs to be taken care of immediately or not. 3.1+3.2 If a parent/guardian has an issue to raise that involves their child or any aspect within the nursery, they should report this to the manager of their child’s room as soon as the issue occurs. All effort is put it to solve issues that are raised in the setting, complaints can be written or verbal, written complaints are usually replied within three months. There is a framework which the issues will be dealt within. A matter relating to a child may be discussed between the parent and child’s key person or their room manager. If a complaint is remained unsolved, the matter will be raised by the childcare services manager with the appropriate authority and the parent will be kept informed on the progress at each stage of the procedure. If a parent arrives in the setting with a complaint the practitioner should establish if this is something they can deal with personally. If it is, they  can deal with it there and then or make an appointment to see the parent if they are currently otherwise occupied. If it is a matter that needs to be dealt with by a more senior member of staff then the parent can be referred in that direction. When a complaint arises, the setting should find a way to prevent this from occurring again and find solutions to overcome the situation. When dealing with complaints the staff member should always remain polite and see the parents point of view. They should take responsibility for what has occurred by understanding and taking control of the situation. Notes could be taken down for reminders what complaints have been received before and these documentations be kept in a secure place, the complaints that are made from a parent should be kept confidential regarding if it is to do with their child or the setting itself.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Commodity chain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Commodity chain - Essay Example The high density polythene is constantly recycled, where other products that have lived their usefulness are broken and the materials remolded to make new items. The mug as it involves simple manufacturing process of melting plastics and then remolding the plastic to form the mug. This must have been made in the same place where the material was outsourced. This is further affirmed by Media Federal (2011) who explains that the company manufacturers large volumes of similar product. It therefore means that the smelting and the molding were made at the same factory; that is the Wei Mon industry co., Ltd. The plastic that is the main raw material in the mug was most likely sourced within the country for recycling or was either new plastic that was formed in the company to manufacture mugs. Considering that the factory manufactures many similar products as Media Federal (2011) explains, the plastic was most likely new and had been formed from raw materials. Plastics are made of polymers through a polymerization process. Most ingredients for polymerization are mostly imported from several countries China and the U.S being leaders in making these polymer materials (Harper, 714). The ingredients to make the mug were most likely bought from China and the company carried out the polymerization process to obtain the polymers that were later used in manufacturing the mugs. ` The product is produced through injection molding. The molds were most likely designed in the Wei Mon Industry co. and then used to carry out injection molding as the main process that the company is involved in. The product therefore involved the use of already designed moulds where molten plastic was forced through, and the mug formed from the molds. The workers in the process must have made very low wages. The mug requires the use of molds that are in most cases automated, the human input is reduced to control

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Care plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Care plan - Essay Example The condition is characterized with general weakness. It is common in elderly people like Ann and can be caused by pulmonary-related problems caused by smoking. In addition, the process of aging itself can limit the functionality and strength of muscles. It may also be related to certain conditions such as obesity, side effects of certain medications, emotional conditions like depression. In addition, it can be as a result imbalance supply and demand of oxygen. Anxiety is a state of fear and apprehension or uneasiness of someone’s mind due to fear of danger or certain misfortunes. It may be caused by environmental factors, genetic factors, and chemistry of the brain factors as well as medical factor. It may also be caused by drug abuse such as tobacco, which might be the possible cause for Ann’s anxiety. Stress in people’s lives is the most factor that can trigger anxiety. In addition, it may also be as a response to external forces. Knowledge deficit is a condition resulting to lack of cognitive information that is related to a particular topic. In this case, Ann may be suffering from knowledge deficit of her anxiety, activity intolerance and ineffective airways. It is always characterized by physical limitation, misinterpreting the information. Lack of learning motivation, emotional conditions that may affect learning, being unfamiliar with resources of information. For the ineffective airway clearance, the outcome criteria with time will be an improved breath sounds, normal rhythm and respiration depth, there will be a decreased dyspnea, the patient will have an oxygen gas within the normal range. To assess the airway of the patient for patency by asking Ann to say her name, to assess the quality of respiratory, depth, effort and pattern, and finally, to perform inspection to find whether there are certain obstructions in the trachea or mouth. To maintain a

Reduce your excessive consumption of paper and contribute with the Essay

Reduce your excessive consumption of paper and contribute with the environment and community - Essay Example However, there are alternatives to using excessive amounts of paper. Such alternatives are using both sides of the paper, or simply received documents online instead of taking up paper. The government needs to take the lead in combating unnecessary paper consumption by offering incentives to those who are environmentally friendly. Another way that the government can have an effect is to implement laws to reduce paper consumption. Paper manufacturing occurs in many different parts of the world and has a number of impacts on the environment. One of these impacts is how it affects the planet, because paper manufacturing is an extremely energy intensive process. About half of the total energy used is in the pulping process, in addition to rolling and drying the pulp into paper. In 1973, the amount of energy needed to make one ream (500 sheets) of copy paper was equal to 3.7 gallons of gasoline. Because of today’s advanced technologies, the energy used to make the same amount of pa per takes up just two gallons of gasoline (Zaida, 2000). According to the U.S. Toxic Release Inventory Report published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), pulp and paper mills are among the worst polluters to air, water, and land of any industry in the country (Martin, 2010). The principal concern for the industry is the chemicals that are used for this process, such as chlorine-based bleaches and the resultant toxic emissions to the air, water, and soil. Almost 4 billion trees or 35 percent of the total trees cut around the world are used in paper industries on every continent (Martin, 2010). We use paper in many different ways—tissue paper, cardboard packaging, stereo speakers, electrical plugs, home insulation, and in the sole inserts in tennis shoes. In short, paper is everywhere. The percentage of paper consumption is growing every year in conjunction with an increasing population. However, there are alternatives to preventing the excessive consumption of paper. One of these choices is to use both sides of print paper. This is one way to help save Mother Earth without having to join Greenpeace or start holding protest marches in your neighborhood. If your information is irrelevant and does not require formality, the information may be printed on both sides of the paper, not only to avoid the high consumption of energy and the harmful chemicals to nature, but also to save money for the cost of purchasing of paper (Arkin, 2010).   Another method is to take your name off mailing lists. It is estimated that over 700 million tons of mail is created each year via mailing lists and direct mailings (â€Å"Ways,† 2011). Contacting the Direct Marketing Association (DMA) and registering with their Mail Preference Service provides an effective way for you to fight unwanted junk mail. The DMA does not provide marketers with consumer mailing lists or carry out consumer mailings. You should avoid joining mailing lists by taking the precau tion of not sending a form with your name and address to anyone. When filling out a form, such as a warranty, subscription, raffle, customer information card, credit card application, and membership for an organization, add the phrase "please do not rent, sell, or trade my name or address" next to the other information provided. The sales representative will then identify your name and preference in their computer. Yet another way to fight excessive paper consumption

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Facts about the Death Penalty Literature review

Facts about the Death Penalty - Literature review Example There are those who believe that the process is biased and must be curtailed until these issues can be examined, however, I would argue that despite any bias in the application of the death penalty, most of the criminals currently sitting on death row are guilty of the crimes they committed and should see their sentence through to its fruition. Those seeking to abolish the death penalty in this country point believe that the problem of racial bias exists within its administration. The most famous statistical study conducted regarding racial bias in death penalty assessment was the 1970s Baldus study. A professor at the University of Iowa Law School, David Baldus "tried to assess the influence of race and other illegitimate factors on the selection of murder suspects for death sentences" (Howe 2085). The results of the study indicated that if a murder victim was white, the rate to which the offender was sentenced to death was much higher than if the victim was black (2085). In a more recent study, commissioned in 2000 by the former governor of Maryland, capital sentencing in that state between 1978 and 1999 was examined. The study found "pronounced bias against killers of white victims, and within the white-victim cases, additional bias against black offenders" (2090).

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Recruitment, selection and deployment of human resources Case Study - 2

Recruitment, selection and deployment of human resources - Case Study Example Care should be taken to make these appraisal systems time bound, reliable, factual and consistent across all outlets. 2. Certainly, it is appropriate to modify the current rating systems in some of the stores. As these stores have a geographic element ingrained in their structure to cater to geographic customer needs, customer satisfaction needs to find a pivotal place and scope in these rating systems. Besides, while taking into consideration some practical concerns like practicality and economic viability, the rating systems in these stores need to be made more frequent rather than being annual or semi-annual. The rating system also needs to be made consistent across most of the stores to assure their accuracy and reliability. 3. One primary performance measurement and determination criteria I would suggest to the management would be Job Result, focusing on the measurable results of the jobs performed by varied employees like sales volume, quality and quantity of work done, etc. I would also suggest rating employees in consonance with their job behavior, like the amount of consideration and patience shown with customers. These particular stores strongly need to have a strong customer satisfaction

Monday, September 23, 2019

Critically evaluate two language teaching styles and indicate, with Essay - 1

Critically evaluate two language teaching styles and indicate, with examples, their potential use within a specific teaching context with which you are familiar - Essay Example This study is being undertaken in order to assess the usage of these learning styles as part of the teaching process, in the hope of seeking improvements and updating strong points for the benefit of the teacher and, most especially, the learner or student. There are eight known approaches to language teaching. These approaches have been conceptualized in view of the fact that teachers and education institutions have recognized the fact that there is no right and single way to teach foreign languages. The Center for Applied Linguistics acknowledges the fact that there is no superior means of language teaching which would also fit all students in all settings. It identified eight language teaching methods which are being used today. According to Doggett (2003, p. 165), these methods include the Grammar Translation Method which focuses on improving student’s participation in the target literature the teacher’s method in teaching the language. Doggett (2003, p. 165) discusses that students are given target language lines and are then asked to answer the questions which follow. This class is structured with the teacher exerting much control over the learning process. Doggett (2003, p. 165) goes on to discuss another method wh ich is the direct method. She discusses that this method gives students the ability to perceive meaning directly through language, since no language translation is allowed. She also emphasizes that visual aids and pantomime are incorporated in the learning process in order to clearly express the meaning of words and concepts. Doggett (2003, p. 165) also discusses the audio-lingual method of language teaching, which is based on the behaviourist concept which suggests that learning language is about gaining the right language habits. In this case, the learner repeats patterns until he can produce such patterns naturally. According to Doggett (2003, p. 165), the silent way is based on

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Marketing Beer Essay Example for Free

Marketing Beer Essay This report illustrates the relationship of beer brands within the perceptual map in regards to alcohol content and price as well as implications for consumer behaviour. The perceptual map indicates that there are market segments in premium beers with high alcohol content. There is also a market segment for low cost beers with high alcohol content. The perceptual map also shows that there are potential business opportunities for premium beers with low alcohol content. The report also provides a high level summary of how beer companies can incorporate perceptual maps when devising their marketing strategy and implications that a perceptual map has for marketing managers. Perceptual maps can be used by marketing managers to determine where consumer’s view their brand of beer to be positioned relative to its competitors. It is a useful tool to identify direct competitors and potential niche opportunities. Table of Contents Introduction4 Perceptual maps and Beer5 Implications of perceptual maps on consumer behaviour5. Implications of perceptual maps on marketing strategy5 Hahn5 Heineken5 Conclusion5 Reference List5 Appendix – might not need this5 Introduction Beer originated in Iran over 7000 years ago. Over time, the beer industry grown to an amazing $(stats)bn industry. Beer consumption over time has increased rapidly, from ## to ##. The beer industry has evolved over time. Changing social and cultural influences have led to changes in the beer industry, in particular in the categories of alcohol content and price of beer. Due to the popular demand of beer, marketing managers must devise sophisticated marketing strategies to sustain their competitiveness. One way in which they can determine where their brand is positioned relative to competitors is through perceptual maps. Perceptual mapping is a method whereby †¦get definition from textbook and cite Perceptual maps provide insight into where consumers view brands relative to others based on the dimensions provided as well as the ideal points for different brands. This report provides a perceptual map of how consumers view beer brands in relation to alcohol content and price. The report also explains how beer companies can incorporate perceptual maps when devising their marketing strategy and implications that a perceptual map has for marketing managers. Perceptual maps and Beer The component of beer market is ales, stouts ,bitters, low/no alcohol beers, premium lager, specialty beers and standard lager. The market is valued according to retail selling price (RSP) and includes any applicable taxes. The perceptual map of beer brands shown that consumer judge the similarity of alternative beer brands by cost and alcoholicity. There are 20 beer brands have been chosen. From the figure1, it indicated that more than half of beer brands are located in the area of full strength and premium. It illuminated that it is no one beer brand in the position of low cost and light. Implications of perceptual maps on consumer behaviour Implications of perceptual maps on the marketing strategy Hahn Hahn premium light is located on the perceptual map as a premium light beer, costing around $24-30 per case. The perceptual map indicates a cluttered market for premium light beer, illustrating Hahn to have a number of similar competitors. With the perceptual maps evaluative criteria, a defined marketing strategy has been constructed to make Hahn light beer stand out in the market. Its creative TV ad was more than successful, with the launch of its hilarious ‘Bean Bomb’ campaign, showing a bloke leaping from a hotel balcony onto a beanbag, propelling the woman sitting on it into the pool, with this, the ad has constructed the brand to be closely associated with the Australian sense of humor—and our love of a larrikin. Marketers have used its country of origin to capitalize on consumer’s bias in favor of their home and the existence of different countries stereotypes ultimately giving Hahn cultural significance and association. This campaign is followed up by the tag ‘some drink it to be responsible others just love the taste’ giving a satirical indication to its quality, further distinguishing it from its other competitors. The campaign was creative, risk-taking and appealing to its target audience—male light-beer drinkers who had felt less masculine and dull for drinking light beer. The ads empowered them to drink light beer with a masculine confidence and a sense of cultural belonging having the brand be associated with Australian stereotypes. Heineken Another brand of beer that has successfully penetrated the market is Heineken. Heineken is available in almost every country on the planet and is the world’s most valuable international premium beer brand. They currently stand as a premium and full strength beer on the perceptual map above which suggests that social status and the occasion for beer determines the choice of Heineken. Perceptual maps can be incorporated in developing or altering marketing strategies by plotting the points gained by surveys onto this map which allows the vast majority of consumer’s views seen in comparison to competitors, also sighting possible market segments as opportunities its direct competitors are Asahi Dry, Budweiser, Guiness, Carlsberg and Corona. In order to move away from increased competition and sluggish sales, Heineken has made an attempt to target the younger consumers, making it more appealing though various advertisements and promotions through outlets where younger consumers are affluent. Even as a successful company with an annual turnover of 11. 829 billion Euros in 2006, Heineken still lists goals and strategies for the coming years as stated on its website â€Å"The goal of Heineken is to grow the business in a sustainable and consistent manner, while constantly improving profitability. The four priorities for action include:† 1. To accelerate sustainable top-line growth. 2. To accelerate efficiency and cost reduction. 3. To speed up implementation: we commit to faster decision making and execution. 4. To focus on those markets where we believe we can win. In doing so, Heineken can guarantee a market for its consumers and remain a strong competitor in the future. Conclusion. Reference List http://www. heinekeninternational. com/strategyandgoals. aspx http://212. 204. 210. 71/kraitierientrial/WoH/heinekentoday03. html http://www. heinekeninternational. com/keyfigures. aspx? navid=12230000000050_136 60000000052 Consumer Behaviour – Implications for marketing stragergy 5th Edition Quester, Neal, Pettigrew, Grimmer, Davis, Hawkins Appendix – might not need.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Ethical Issues Of Internet Privacy Media Essay

Ethical Issues Of Internet Privacy Media Essay Privacy is a status wherein an individual can work on his/her information in seclusion, resulting in a selective revelation of ones identity and information. Privacy can mean anonymity in case a person wants to remain unidentified. Privacy can also be related to the security aspect of an individual or information. The definitions of privacy can differ across individuals and cultures. The invasion of privacy can be avoided by the issue of privacy laws.  Ã‚  [1]   Internet, which hosts an enormous information base, has given rise to the concept of information privacy. The vast information on the Internet faces security needs. Unauthorized access to the information is undesirable. Data privacy refers to the association between the technology and the legal rights related to it. Whenever any information about a person or a persons data is stored, privacy needs arise. Internet privacy is the control one has over what information about oneself, the person wishes to disclose. Internet privacy refers to having control on the access to information over the internet.  [2]   Ethical Issues concerning social networking sites: facebook. Internet privacy comes on the scene when it comes to website users giving out their personal details on the Internet. There are several issues about whether third parties should be allowed to store or read emails without informed consent. One of the main privacy concerns is that the third parties should be allowed to track visitors on a website or not.   Facebook have very few ways to protect and restrict the outside developers of games, quizzes etc. from accessing users profile information.  [3]   The other important Internet privacy issue concerning facebook is whether it is okay with the usersas they allow it to gather personally identifiable information on them and then display in public or give their contact information to others. An article, intelligent life on the web posted at identifies two schools of thoughts on these issues. One school of thought denies the existence of Internet privacy while the other advocates the necessity of the Internet privacy. Complete anonymity is not the intent of Internet privacy. It rather intends to achieve a controlled disclosure of ones personal information. Internet is a network of networks and when a person uses the Internet, he/she connects to it and is identified by an address. In technical terms this address is known as an IP address. For security reasons, a website may wish to track these addresses of its users. Websites may collect the non-personally identifiable information of their users.  [4]   Such information is the one, which in no way can be used to uniquely identify a person. The disclosure of these forms of information is acceptable. It is actually the means by which websites track the users Internet activities. There is a controversy going on the privacy issue concerning these social networking sites.there are users who are unaware that their profiles, documents, pictures,etc are being marketed by such sites.there are people who afre confused whether or not to give their contact information,upload their photos: whether facebook abides by its privacy policy and if it does then why is there an networking sites especially facebook has become a ground where the boundary line between private and public is becoming blurred.By hacking ones account and gaining access to all the information posted by one can be gained.This poses threat as well as fear for the users.Some people fear the fact that they have a visibility over the Internet for such reasons. Its clear that privacy issues are top of mind for Facebook, and yet we found serious privacy gaps in the way the site operates, says Privacy Commissioner Jennifer Stoddart in an article posted on office of the privacy commission of Canada website. The investigation, prompted by a complaint from the Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic, identified several areas where Facebook needs to better address privacy issues and bring its practices in line with Canadian privacy law. It directs attention to the problem that when the user deactivates his account from does not delete it.the information is still contained on the page although it may not be visible to the user. A special issue of the Journal for Computer-Mediated Communications was dedicated to studies of social network sites.  [5]   it is need of the hour that these sites rise to action.facebook needs to define the trade-of demarcating line between whats public and whats private. Internet privacy is indeed important in case of the revelation of personally identifiable information on facebook. THE FUTURE OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES: SNEAK PEEK. Social networking has always been exisiting.however, online social networking came to the surface in 1995 when the first social networking site was established.Ever since, the number has been increasing at a pace that is unimaginable. According to Wikipedia there are around 200 social networking sites in existence today.these sites offer different features and are of various types and dedicated to different groups like affinity groups, etc We can take a sneak peek into the future of social networking sites like facebook by looking at the pace at which facebook has been growing.initially, the social networking site which started off for the university students to interact with each other began to grow and today has a population that would form a number greater than that of india and china, says a BBC documentary Constant innovation is needed in every business.the social networking sites which are innovating,offering entertaining services to the users are the ones who have the users addicted to them. facebook is one of them. These social networking sites are forming a platform for marketing where the marketers can display their advertisements and help gain access to interested customer information to contact them. This allows them to do target marketing and is becoming a leading substitute to offline advertisement as it is cheaper and considered more effective However, there are others who say that this is not the case. Some analysts point to the fact that with an aging group of people using the social network technology and less young people wanting to make facebook pages (as well as pages on other networks) the fate of the social networking site is to fade away.the younger generation according to them is more directed towards offline world and offline social interaction. All of this concludes to the fact that the future of social networking is gloomy and grim because now it is not thought out to be as a cool place among younger groups. Still others see the future in social networking sites as something that depends on technology. If the technology used for the networks changes and becomes even more powerful and full featured, more young people will want to use the networks. This will increase the amount of people on the social sites, and increase revenue and customer base for those who own them. These people do not see the social networking craze as having peaked yet, because there is always the potential for better technology. However, whatever school of thought we consider and whatever imagination we hold at the back of our mind, we simply cannot deny the impact that these networking sites are having on our daily lives. Facebook is undergoing a huge period of growth. With more than 150,000 new users signing up daily, it is growing three times as fast as rival MySpace. Mac Zuckerberg in his interview to the TIMES magazine describes Facebook as a social utility rather than a social network? RECCOMMENDATIONS: No matter how successful a business gets, it needs to constantly change, innovate, bring in new stuff for its target users. The facebook webpage should be made more interactive. It should include features like: user friendly tools, details about the privacy to help the first users gain trust and confidence in it. It should include more content on the help tool like google does.this could help ease the users and they would begin using facebook as a search site instead of google The search tab should be made more usable by including more content to it It should focus more attention on the privacy policy.The information of a person should be strictly confidential to that person and that person alone unless he aims to make it should not be marketed by giving it to other search softwares like google It should also ensure that developers can only access the user information actually required to run a specific application,e.g: games,quizzes,etc It must not also disclose information of the users who are only browing through the application and not actually using it Adding an additional feature like picture rating scale as used by major social networking sites can help it gain more attention of users.the users can rate the can alsouse this feature to generate revenue In order to stand different from its competitors it should adopt easily accessible softwares that can help users build their own blogs on facebook Since many young users are into editing can capitalize on this interest by adding simple, light load and easy to use photo editors As soon as a person deactivates his account from a group, his information should be immediately removed from the page FEATURES The basic purpose of a soial networking site is to provide a platform where different people of same interest, gendre,affinity,culture, or at least having something in common can come together and share their views, ideas and in this way make new friends.This like that of all other social networking sites forms the core product for facebook. However in order to stand out different from the crowd such site must offer more than just the basic tools.these are the supplementary services and tools that augment the core product. The producers of facebook augment the core product by providing supplementary features, the most important of which include: Quizzes Music player Games Social interviews Games groups events Sales discussion boards Quizzes poker Social interview network directory favourites news storage News New events Poker Platform for Social interaction : coresales profiles friends network network directory favourites e-mail storage chat message boards groups discussion boards membership management tools TECHNOLOGY AND CHANGES: Facebook has started to make a series of evolutionary moves over the recent past times.technolofy keeps evolving since it is human need to see and experience change in its life. Facebook ,like most other social networking site has been free for its users.the revenue model is based on advertisements and the users are not charged for the service.however, it is expected that since facebook has built its large userbase, it might shift to a fee based model. But since most other sites and even its competitors like twitter,etc are not charging its users,this might pose a threat to its established user base and brand name. The source for this cannot be quoted since its a discussion that is surrounding and is circulating on the web. CHALLENGES Although facebook has a large population of users around the world, it is still facing challenges going global. Last year,  Facebook  sued German social network  StudiVZ  for violating copyright laws, mimicking its logo, features and service, according to German website,  The Local. The two companies are currently battling out of court, but will begin trial in July if an agreement isnt met. Also an investigation was carried out by Privacy Commissioner Jennifer Stoddart on ethical issues concerning facebook.the details of which are posted on office of the privacy commission of Canada website. The investigation, prompted by a complaint from the Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic, identified several areas where Facebook needs to better address privacy issues and bring its practices in line with Canadian privacy law The privacy issue concerning it has been brought to the surface and institutions are looking into this matter Facebook in reaction to it has although improved on its privacy policy but still it is claimed that the issue has not been fully resolved and it needs to further provide safety to the users. Apart from these legal and social challenges, facebook also has to deal with the challenge of competition.its direct competitors which include twitter,linkedin,etc are also rising above the surface with their increasing userbase and offering more services. In recent news reported in US magazine, Pakistan,published on April 30,2010 ,it is reported that twitter has announced a new service called promotd tweets which would allow businesses to buy keywords that would let them show advertising messages in search results,and will help turn the service intoa profitable business. This might be a major threat for facebook.the response for this can be taken by giving more opportunities to capitalize for the businesses so that it does not lose the base of users from business sector. Also, If the competitors offer more privacy or come up with some more innovative tools, itd be threatening for it. Face book must therefore constantly innovate to keep its users glued to its services. At the end of the day we all understand that no competitive advantage is sustainable. Anything can be imitated. so we cannot sit back and think of capitalizing on established user base and differentiated services for long. constant innovation and rapid response to change is the key to success for all businesses.

Friday, September 20, 2019

The Landscape of History Essay -- Book Review, John Lewis Gaddis

In The Landscape of History, John Lewis Gaddis makes a cohesive argument concerning about the debate over the objectivity of truth by stating â€Å"objectivity as a consequence is hardly possible, and that there is, therefore, no such thing as truth (Gaddis 29). The question for objective history has long been debated by numerous historians, and the differing viewpoints of history have led to a transition in our ways of thinking in the modern world. Ultimately, the question that this paper focuses on is: to what extent is history objective? Along with this, the relation to historical consciousness and the challenges of living in modernity will also be assessed. This paper will analyze the texts of John Lewis Gaddis, Nietzsche and the Birth of Tragedy, Modernity and Historical Vision, Living in Modernity, and Hermeneutics. Finally, the paper will argue that history is not largely objective, and is fundamentally shaped through the historian’s subjectivity. John Lewis Gaddis, in his book, The Landscape of History, generates a strong argument for the historical method by bringing together the multiple standpoints in viewing history and the sciences. The issue of objective truth in history is addressed throughout Gaddis’s work. In general, historians learn to select the various events that they believe to be valid. Historians must face the fact that there is an â€Å"accurate† interpretation of the past ceases to exist because interpretation itself is based on the experience of the historian, in which people cannot observe directly (Gaddis 10). Historians can only view the past in a limited perspective, which generates subjectivity and bias, and claiming a piece of history to be â€Å"objective† is simplistic. Seeing the world in a multidimensiona... ... in history. There is no real objective aspect to history, but a multitude of attitudes towards history can make history a discipline that allows for multidimensionality. The debate regarding whether or not history could be objective has been discussed and interpreted by many historians. The ways we think about history has allowed for the divergence of various perspectives in the world we live in today. In sum, the question discussed in this paper pertains to the extent of which history can be objective. This question has left room for several interpretations in the field of historiography and challenged our experienced in the era of modernity. This paper’s argument went for the subjective side of the argument with evidence for my argumentation from John Gaddis, Friedrich Nietzsche, Postmodernity and Modernity, Living in Modernity, and Heidegger’s Hermeneutics.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Deep into Darkness Peering Essay -- Poetry Analysis

Edgar Allan Poe is considered to be one of America’s most prominent poets. While his reputation precedes him, there is little that is actually known about the famous author. His life can only be accurately summed up by a few historical accounts and a series of letters written in his own hand. These, of course, do not even come close to describing the man behind the pen, as it were. One critic writes, â€Å"monomania can easily be developed over the motely tragedy of the personal life of Poe, so deeply buried under a shifting mass of conflicting rumours, echoes of rumours, and downright lies† (Bradsher 241). He was, socially, a private man, but he gave the world something more interesting and powerful that can be told in letters and biographies; he gave us himself. Every poem, short story, or piece of literature that his ink marked upon paper was a part of him. They are these things we must study in order to understand Poe. What’s more is that we must understand these things in order to see him. Poe even states that â€Å"the mind of a painter is expressed in his pictures† (Poetical 360). His entire repertoire is the key to the proverbial lock of his intent behind his own masterpiece. These are what have made Poe such a notorious figure in American culture. Experiences within Edgar Allan Poe’s life lead to his different perspectives on death. By analysing Annabel Lee, The Raven, The Masque of the Red Death, we can see that these perspectives include: hope; despair; and fear. Annabel Lee is one of Poe’s more famous poems. It is about a young man (the narrator) that falls in love with a girl when they are both children. Their love was so strong that it made even the angels jealous, so Annabel Lee was stricken ill by the heavens and perished... ...out the nature of yourself and man more interesting than giving us the answers. After all, where’s the fun in knowing? â€Æ' Works Cited Bradsher, Earl L. "The Poetic Works of Edgar Allan Poe." Review. The Sewanee Review Apr. 1918: 241-44. Print. Campbell, Killis. "Contemporary Opinion of Poe." PMLA 36.2 (1921): 142-66. Print. Campbell, Killis. "Selected Poems of Edgar Allan Poe." Review. American Literature Mar. 1929: 103-04. Print. Law, Robert A. "A Source for Annabel Lee." Journal of English and German Philology 21.2 (1922): 341-46. Print. Poe, Edgar Allan, and J. Montgomery Gambrill. Selections from Poe. Boston: Ginn &, 1907. Print. Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Poetical Works by Edgar Allan Poe." The Crayon 5.12 (1858): 360. Print. Werner, W. L. "Poe's Theories and Practice in Poetic Technique." American Literature 2.2 (1930): 157-65. Print. Deep into Darkness Peering Essay -- Poetry Analysis Edgar Allan Poe is considered to be one of America’s most prominent poets. While his reputation precedes him, there is little that is actually known about the famous author. His life can only be accurately summed up by a few historical accounts and a series of letters written in his own hand. These, of course, do not even come close to describing the man behind the pen, as it were. One critic writes, â€Å"monomania can easily be developed over the motely tragedy of the personal life of Poe, so deeply buried under a shifting mass of conflicting rumours, echoes of rumours, and downright lies† (Bradsher 241). He was, socially, a private man, but he gave the world something more interesting and powerful that can be told in letters and biographies; he gave us himself. Every poem, short story, or piece of literature that his ink marked upon paper was a part of him. They are these things we must study in order to understand Poe. What’s more is that we must understand these things in order to see him. Poe even states that â€Å"the mind of a painter is expressed in his pictures† (Poetical 360). His entire repertoire is the key to the proverbial lock of his intent behind his own masterpiece. These are what have made Poe such a notorious figure in American culture. Experiences within Edgar Allan Poe’s life lead to his different perspectives on death. By analysing Annabel Lee, The Raven, The Masque of the Red Death, we can see that these perspectives include: hope; despair; and fear. Annabel Lee is one of Poe’s more famous poems. It is about a young man (the narrator) that falls in love with a girl when they are both children. Their love was so strong that it made even the angels jealous, so Annabel Lee was stricken ill by the heavens and perished... ...out the nature of yourself and man more interesting than giving us the answers. After all, where’s the fun in knowing? â€Æ' Works Cited Bradsher, Earl L. "The Poetic Works of Edgar Allan Poe." Review. The Sewanee Review Apr. 1918: 241-44. Print. Campbell, Killis. "Contemporary Opinion of Poe." PMLA 36.2 (1921): 142-66. Print. Campbell, Killis. "Selected Poems of Edgar Allan Poe." Review. American Literature Mar. 1929: 103-04. Print. Law, Robert A. "A Source for Annabel Lee." Journal of English and German Philology 21.2 (1922): 341-46. Print. Poe, Edgar Allan, and J. Montgomery Gambrill. Selections from Poe. Boston: Ginn &, 1907. Print. Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Poetical Works by Edgar Allan Poe." The Crayon 5.12 (1858): 360. Print. Werner, W. L. "Poe's Theories and Practice in Poetic Technique." American Literature 2.2 (1930): 157-65. Print.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Achieving the American Dream :: Essays on the American Dream

From the nineteenth century to the present, the United States has been hailed as a â€Å"land of opportunity† where individuals could achieve personal, political, religious, and economic freedoms. The image of the â€Å"land of opportunity† was true to different degrees for the African-American sharecropper in the postwar South, the immigrant at Ellis Island, and the wealthy capitalist or manager in the period from eighteen-sixty five to nineteen-fourteen with the African-American being at the low end of the rung and the capitalist being at the top.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The newly freed African-American in the postwar South had the hardest time achieving freedoms due to white men considering them as inferior. As on southerner of the time said, the â€Å"ex-slave was not a free man; he was a free Negro† . This is best exemplified in the Black Codes and Jim Crow laws of the time. If we look at the African-American of the time and compare them to the rest of the citizens of United States then they were seriously lacking in the basic freedoms granted to American Citizens. However, if we take a different approach and compare them to what they were only decades earlier, then we see that they had gained many freedoms which they formerly did not have which Reverend E.P. Holmes, a black Georgia preacher best stated when he said â€Å"Most anyone ought to know that a man is better off free than as a slave, even if he did not have anything, I would rather be free and have my liberty† .   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  African-Americans established their own churches, schools, social clubs, and even businesses which provided services such as insurance, banking, hair cutting, and funerals to the black community. With the help of the federal government they took great steps in gaining more freedoms. The Freedmen’s Bureau was the first step congress took to aid the newly freed slaves. The Freedmen’s Bureau’s main purpose was to help negotiate labor contracts, provide medical care, and help set up schools for the freedmen. The second step congress took was in passing the Civil Rights act of 1866 which states that â€Å"all persons born in the United States†¦ excluding non-taxed Indians, were citizens entitled to full and equal benefits of all laws† . Two years later, congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment which reaffirmed citizenship for all persons- regardless of race-born or naturalized in the United States and forbade any state from abridging th e privileges and immunities of citizens; to deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; or to deny any person equal protection of the laws.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Middle-Class Homelessness in America Essay

Can you imagine yourself standing in line in hope for a cot at a shelter to share with your family, or waiting for a warm meal in a soup kitchen? This is what many middle-class American citizens have succumbed to. Has the American dream been lost, has the middle-class lost its position in the American economy, and has the inequality of income cause the demise of the middle-class? By focusing on the health care reform and record low unemployment rate we overlook the underlying problem; the dwindling middle-class, the backbone of our country. Many studies have been conducted to define middle-class without much success. It has been attempted to relate it to annual income. One study states that yearly incomes between $32,900 and $64,000, another between $50,800 and $122,000, and the U. S. census bureau middle 60% of incomes is the largest range of all lies between$ 20600, and $102,000 as what defines middle-class. Dan Horn notes in the Cincinnati Enquirer â€Å"Psychologist Ken Eisold, a contributor to Psychology today, said, though, that the way people describe their social status has more to do with what’s going on in their heads than their wallets. † Eisold goes on to say that â€Å"it’s really more about identity†. Horn adds that Julie Heath, director of the University of Cincinnati’s Economics Center agrees with Eisold that saying, â€Å"We’re a middle-class family has more than a financial connotations to it, it has a salt-of the earth to it. That’s the bed rock. Essentially this shows that Americans do not base their social status on their income alone, but also on their personal accomplishments and views of where they have come from and where they are going. That being said, the bed rock of the middle-class comes from one of the most common descriptions what living in America is all about; the great American Dream. History tells us that this emotion connected with being middle-class started showing up in the 1830’s. In these times people came to America hoping for the best, and they clung to ideas of how they would make it. They believed that if those ideas and values were kept, that they were middle-class, even if they were not financially. This is how the idea of the Leave it to Beaver life style came into being. In the 1950’s men took white collar jobs while women stayed home and maintained their house and families. They bought homes in the suburbs, nice family cars, and made safe investments. This provided them a sense of stability and many believed this is what the American dream is all about. Today, in pursuit of the dream, to maintain their middle-class status many Americans have higher incomes than their parents did but both parents are working. Yet while doing the best that they that they can possibly do, many are watching their dreams shatter. Erin Currier, director of the Pew Economic Mobility Project, said â€Å"stability is one of the biggest threats to the middle class today. † She goes on to say, â€Å"Though born into middle-class, many fall out by adulthood. † This is due to inflation of basic needs such as health care, day care, college funding, and the rise of the inequality of income. One term often referred to when relating to the middle-class crisis is Income Gap. As defined on the internet by investapedia. om, the income gap is the unequal distribution of household and individual income across the various participants in an economy. A sociology and political science professor at the University of Arizona who studies income inequality and poverty, says that over the past three decades â€Å"is slow income growth compared to general economic growth†¦ a bigger and bigger portion of economic growth has occurred to the wealthiest 1 %, whether the measure is basic wages or total compensation,† says Lane Kenworthy. (CQ researcher 3) There is political risk involved with this shift that is greater than economics and family finances. A large middle class, especially one that is politically active, tends to be a kind of anchor that keeps our country from swinging back and forth. There are typical values that middle-class families acquire and pass on to their children and those values tend to be good for democracy,† states Teresa Sullivan, provost and executive vice president for academic affairs at the University of Michigan, and the co-author of The Fragile Middle Class: Americans in Debt. (CQ Researche r 2) The new millennium looked very hopeful for the war on poverty in America. The federal poverty rate was the lowest it had been since 1974 according to CQ Researcher. The next 4 years even better with Housing prices doubling in many cities and increase in home equity loans that brought the Home-ownership rate up to an all time high of 69 percent. In 2008 we would not only see the sand shift out from the false growth of the economy led by the banks and lending companies but our government bail the banks out with $700 billion rescue bill, They did not however bail out the borrower and many lost their homes. Leading to the current middle class crisis. These issues, the rise of the inequality of income and the shattering of the American dream, have led us to the downfall of the middle class. In more recent years the middle-class are finding themselves not only having a decrease in their income due to layoffs and downsizing, but while not able to maintain their dream are losing their homes due to foreclosures. They are now finding themselves sleeping in their cars, if fortunate to still have one. They are waiting in lines for food and shelter, and bathing in gas station rest rooms, standing on street corners and highway exit’s begging for money or work. I have a personal interest in this research because I consider myself a middleclass American who lived through these years of the housing crisis and recession, I have lost a business, I am dealing with the short sale of my home and a threat of foreclosure, I have suffered through divorce and currently I am a struggling single mother. In conclusion the decline of the middle-class has hit very close to home. Although the hope of the American dream dies a slow death in my own heart, because of the continual economic status and burden of the cost of living rising, many like me are losing hope.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Ethics Awareness Inventory Analysis Essay

The Ethics Awareness Inventory (EAI) is a test created by the Williams Institute of Ethics and Management to provide individuals with a general approach towards ethical issues. This test broadly categorizes your profile in four categories namely, character (C), obligation (O), results (R), and equity (E). This paper will discuss my EAI profile, and how the results apply to my professional and personal development. In the end, I’ll also explain how my educational experience has affected my ethical thinking. According to the Ethics Awareness Inventory test, I’m most closely aligned with character, and least closely aligned with equity. This means that I’m a person that believes that having a good moral character is more important than achieving the results or completing their obligation. I believe that honesty and integrity are the most important characteristics of a ethical person. I look beyond people’s actions, and look deep into their character to decide whether they are ethical or not. I also believe that there are some standards regarding right and wrong, and that everyone is fully aware of them. They just need the proper willpower to act upon them. My EAI test also shows that I value obligation rather than results, which implies that I look into the best interests of the company, and don’t really consider the consequences of my action. I treat everyone like human beings and give them respect, rather than looking at them as means to an end. It also implies that I’m a team player. My EAI score also suggests that I believe that an ethically and morally correct decision shouldn’t necessarily be popular. In fact, most of the decisions I make are unpopular in the masses, and I think that is a measure of great character to stand up against a crowd. Regarding my professional and personal development, I always ask my self three questions when faced with an ethical dilemma: is it right for me; is it right for the company; and is it right for the customer? I believe that a decision should be in favor of the customer and the organization as well. I always look for a win-win situation when faced with a problem. Another way I solve my ethical dilemmas is by looking at the character of the person and the intention behind it. When I feel strongly about an ethical decision, then I ignore the rules and make the decision based on the person’s character. Lastly, I consider that my educational experience has tremendously affected my ethical thinking. When confronted with an ethical dilemma, I’m able to analyze the situation calmly. Furthermore, through my learning experience, I’m able to value the diversity and appreciate the opinions of others. By appreciating the point of others, I’ve been able to successfully avoid and/or solve conflicts. Furthermore, my educational experience has helped me increase my awareness about the choices I have regarding making decisions. I’ve learnt that I’m not right in every situation and that it’s better to be more flexible when dealing with other people. In conclusion, I believe that it’s extremely important for every individual to understand their ethical inclinations. Although there are no right or wrong answers in the test, I believe that by taking this test a person is better equipped to defend his personal and ethical decision. Furthermore, a person is better able to understand himself and his values. Reference University of Phoenix. (2010). Ethics Awareness Inventory. Retrieved November 30, 2008, from University of Phoenix, Week Two, rEsource. GEN480—Interdisciplinary Capstone Course Web site.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Starbucks Case Accounting

Starbucks Case Part I – Prior to reading Starbuck’s Form 10-K, please answer the following questions. Your answers should be based upon your general knowledge of Starbucks, gained from visiting their stores, purchasing their products and/or observing them in the marketplace. a. Up until the economic downturn (Fall of 2008) what do you believe was Starbucks’ growth strategy? Give three examples of specific actions (growth initiatives) you observed Starbucks execute upon as part of their growth strategy? 1. Saturate the U. S. arket: Based on our observations, it seemed that Starbuck’s primary strategy for growth was to saturate the U. S. market. At one point there seemed to be a Starbucks at every corner, sometimes so close that one had to wonder why in the heck they were opening stores within a couple dozen feet from each other. 2. Expand internationally: We presume that one of their growth goals was to expand abroad, specially if they began to realize they were cannibalizing their own established stores, so they likely had to go outside of the U. S. o keep up their growth targets. 3. Develop complementary products/alternative revenue sources: We also think that around 2006-2007 was when they started to promote downloadable music and also began to sell CDs & books in stores; which means they began to more aggressively add alternative revenue channels, beyond that of coffee/drinks, to their many locations. (Personally, I purchased a bottle of Starbucks coffee liqueur around that time, which I still have because it’s not as good as other coffee liqueurs such as Kahlua. b. How do you believe Starbucks measured their success in executing their growth strategy? Give four specific measures you might use to evaluate the success of Starbucks’ growth strategy. Very likely that they were measuring it against number of new stores opened, and sales growth. We would probably use the following to evaluate the success of Starbuck’s growth strategy: 1. Sales growth. 2. Operating Revenues. 3. Net income. 4. Return on assets. The remaining sections of the case should be completed after you have read Starbucks Form 10-K and any other information deemed pertinent. Part II – Results of the audit by Starbucks’ outside independent accountant, status of Starbucks’ financial reporting controls and industry specific accounting. a. Who is Starbucks’ outside independent auditor? Did Starbucks receive a qualified or unqualified (clean) audit report from their outside independent auditor for the 2010 fiscal year end? a. Deloitte & Touche, LLP. b. Unqualified. b. What was Starbucks management’s conclusion in their report on internal control for financial reporting? What was the outside independent auditor’s conclusion regarding management’s review and assessment of financial reporting controls? . That their internal control over financial reporting was effective as of October 3, 2010. d. That Starbucks maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of October 3, 2010. c. How does Starbucks account for gift cards? What impact do unredeemed gift cards have on the reported operating income in each year? How does Starbucks’ accounting for unredeemed gift cards compare to other retailers? e. Revenues for cards are recognized when tendered for payment, or upon redemption. Outstanding balances are included in deferred revenue on the balance sheet. Balances on cards that are deemed unlikely to be redeemed, get recognized as net interest income. f. Operating income is increased by balances on cards thought unlikely to be redeemed; therefore, it can be argued that operating income is being overstated by the addition of â€Å"unlikely-to-be-redeemed† card balances to net interest income. g. Gift card balances by other retailers are probably carried as a liability (unearned revenue). When gift cards are not redeemed, some retailers return the balances to the state where the card was issued assuming the unclaimed balance to be â€Å"unclaimed property† in some states. As seen above, Starbucks does carry outstanding balances as deferred revenue (a liability) as well, but once the cards are deemed unlikely to be redeemed, it treats the unclaimed balance as an asset. Part III – Trend Analysis of Sales and Earnings Growth During 2006 – 2010 Review Starbucks income statement and common size income statement for the years 2006 through 2010. Identify and comment on the major trends in the growth in Starbucks sales and earnings, including: a. Sales growth – was Starbucks’ sales growth consistent or inconsistent over the above five year period? Do you see signs of acceleration or deceleration in Starbucks’ historic growth rates? How does Starbucks’ sales growth compare to its industry averages? Are same store sales or the opening of new stores the more important factor in driving Starbucks’ sales growth during this period? Do you believe Starbucks sale trends over the past few years will continue over the next two to three years? Please provide rationale for your belief. Starbucks’ sales growth was inconsistent over the above 5 year period. Data from the last 5 years suggests that Starbucks’ growth rate is actually decelerating. Starbucks’ sales growth was below the industry sales growth. The industry has average 9. 25% over the last 5 years while Starbucks averaged 7. 5% only. The opening of new stores is vital to Starbucks’ sales strategy. During 2006, 2007, and 2008, Starbucks added 2199, 2571, and 1669 net stores. During the same years, sales grew by 22%, 21%, and 10% respectively. During 2009, Starbucks reduced 45 stores and their sales dropped by 7%. In 2010, Starbucks added 223 stores and not surprisingly their sales increased by 10%. In our opinion, Starbucks’ sales will continue to grow but at a decreasing rate over the next 2 to 3 years. This projection is based on historical sales data from the last 5 years which suggest a deceleration of sales growth. Starbucks’ average sales growth for the last 5 years is 11%. In 2006, Starbucks’ sales grew by 22%. This suggests a deceleration of sales growth. b. Gross margins – did gross margins expand, contract or hold steady over the period? What major factors account for the trend you’ve identified? The gross margin has held steady over the last 5 years ranging anywhere from 55% to 59%. Gross margin is affected by sales and cost of sales. c. Operating expense – make sure you look at operating expenses in both absolute dollar terms and as a percent of sales. Did operating expenses grow slower, faster or at the same rate as revenues? Would you expect to see more leverage on Starbucks’ cost base, given their growth history? (Note: operating leverage is demonstrated when a company’s operating expenses grow at slower rate than its sales, thereby resulting in operating earnings growing faster than sales. ) Do you believe Starbucks’ cost base is mostly fixed, mostly variable or an equal mix of each? What implication does the structure of Starbucks cost base (i. e. % fixed / variable) have on the relationship between the growth rates of revenues and earnings? Make sure you present information to support your conclusion. Operating expenses have grown at a higher rate than revenues over the last 5 years. Revenues grew at an average of 7% while operating expenses have grown at an average of 11. 34%. Based on these numbers, we expect to see less leverage on Starbucks’ cost base as operating expenses are growing at a higher rate than revenues. The fact that Starbucks’ operating expenses are growing at a higher rate than its revenues shows that Starbucks’ cost base is mostly variable. This is also proven by the income statement as most of Starbucks’ operating expenses are Cost of Sales and Store Operating expenses. Most of these are usually variable. Having more variable expenses usually means that earnings will not necessarily grow at the same rate as revenues. This is demonstrated by the income statement from the last 5 years. Starbucks’ revenues and earnings have grown at different rates over each year of the last 5 years. The average earnings growth per year over the last 5 years is 12. 62% as compared to an average sales growth per year of 7. 5%. d. Operating income – have operating earnings grown at the same rate, faster or slower than sales? What factors (e. g. gross margins, operating expense/charges) account for the trend you’ve identified? Be specific and provide support for your answer. Operating income has grown at a faster rate than sales on a per year basis over the last 5 years. Sales growth has averaged 7. 5% per year as compared to an operating income growth of 11. 75% per year during the same period. The reason that operating income has grown so fast is because Starbucks recently made changes to its cost structure that made it more efficient. As per the 10-k statement filed with the SEC, Starbucks decreased its Cost of Sales by 260 basis points by making their supply chain process more efficient. This resulted in lower food, beverage, and paper packaging costs. Because of its sales leverage, Starbucks was also able to decrease its occupancy costs. Because of the reduced costs, Starbucks was able to have a higher operating income in 2010. This caused the 5 year average to jump up to 11. 75%. Also contributing to this growth was the fact that sales increased at a higher rate than operating expenses. Therefore, operating income also went up at a higher rate than sales. e. Net Income – has net income grown at the same rate, faster or slower than sales? What factors (e. g. gross margins, operating expense, non-operating items) account for the trend you’ve identified? Be specific and provide support for your answer. Net Income has increased at a higher rate than sales also on a per year basis for the last five years. In fact, Net Income has pretty much mirrored Operating Income in growth. The factors tied to Net Income are Sales, Operating Expenses, Interest, and Taxes. Taxes remained relatively proportionate EBT each year. During each of the 5 years, Starbucks experienced a positive interest income for 3 years and a negative for 2 years. This helped Starbucks increase their Net Income. However, the factor that affected Net Income the most was Operating Expenses. Operating expenses grew at a slower rate than sales from 2006 to 2010. This resulted in Starbucks having a higher Operating Income which in turn resulted in a higher net income. Starbucks’ net income grew by 142. 2% in 2010 from the previous year. This big change resulted in the average net income growth rate to increase to 12. 62%. During the same period, Sales has grown by 7. 5% and operating expenses grew by 7%. All of this contributed to the Net Income growing at a higher rate than sales. f. Earnings per share – Does Starbucks’ earnings per share increase/decrease at a rate consistent with revenue and net income. Why is this? Do you expect this relationship to continue into the future? Starbucks’ EPS increases and decreases at a rate consistent with net income but not sales. This is because earnings per share are calculated by taking the net income and dividing that into the number of shares outstanding. As a result, there is a direct correlation with net income and not sales. We expect this relationship to continue in the future as long as the number of shares outstanding doesn’t change drastically each year. Part IV – Analysis of Operating Efficiency, Liquidity and Solvency Using data included in the Form 10-K analyze Starbucks’ operating efficiency and liquidity. That is, answer the questions below. The ratio definitions used to calculate the figures in the Ratio Analysis table are described in the text and lecture notes. a. Operating efficiency: Turnover ratios. In one paragraph, explain what the values of turnover ratios reveal about Starbucks. That is, for each ratio, discuss the trend, compare Starbucks’ ratio to the industry average (for receivables, inventory turnover and asset turnover only) and discuss whether the trend indicates improvements or deteriorations in operating efficiency. Can you think of any other measures that would be useful to assess Starbucks’ operational efficiency? Turnover ratios reveal that in 2010, Starbucks’ sales increased. Receivables turnover jumped up slightly from previous years to 37. 31. The industry’s 2009 median receivables turnover is significantly higher than Starbucks’ at about 98. 64. This trend indicates that Starbucks made less sales on credit in 2010. It could also mean that Starbucks improved collecting on its accounts receivables; however, since Starbucks’ average collection period ratio has not changed in the last three years (holding steady at about 11 days), there is no indication that collection on receivables has improved. The inventory turnover ratio of 7. 8, which slightly increased from 2009, also suggests a decrease in inventories, which is supported by the drop of inventory assets shown on the balance sheet. This trend supports the observation that sales have increased significantly for Starbucks in 2010 which is always an improvement for any business. PP&E Turnover ratio of 4. 32, whi ch increased from 2009, again, demonstrates higher sales since PP&E remained at similar levels as previous years per the balance sheet. Total asset turnover, 1. 79, remained very close to last year, and is slightly less than the industry average, 1. 3. This shows Starbucks continues to generate sales at a level of almost twice as much as they carry assets on their books. The fact that their asset turnover is slightly less than that of their competitors suggests that Starbucks may have more assets than their competitors. b. Liquidity: In one paragraph, explain what the liquidity ratios (current ratio, quick ratio and cash from operations ratio) reveal about Starbucks. Include an explanation of how the cash flow from operations ratio differs from the current and quick ratios. What is your conclusion egarding Starbucks’ liquidity position? With significant increases in 2010 in current ratio, 1. 55, and quick ratio, 0. 99, Starbucks is very liquid. Quick ratio shows they have 1. 5 times current assets on the books as they do current liabilities. Likewise, the quick ratio shows they would be able to cover current liabilities with their current assets. The cash from operations ratio is . 96, which states that Starbucks’ cash from operations would not be enough to cover its current liabilities. This ratio differs from the first two in that it compares a cash flow item to a balance sheet item. It is an indication of a firm’s ability to pay off its current liabilities; however, it is the most conservative liquidity ratio since it excludes all current assets except for the most liquid: cash and equivalents. It tells that Starbucks would not quite be able to pay off all of its current liabilities with just its cash and equivalents, although it does come close. c. Solvency: Interpret the values of the relevant ratios and provide a conclusion regarding Starbucks’ ability to service its debt and risk of future insolvency. Does your conclusion change if you include â€Å"off balance sheet debt†. How much off balance sheet debt does Starbucks have as of the end of the most recent fiscal year? Starbucks’ solvency ratios suggest that it is in a strong position and would likely be able to service its debt as it shows low risk of future solvency. It’s debt to equity ratio for 2010 of 0. 73 is at the lowest it has been in the past five years. From 2009 Starbucks had a big increase in retained earnings, this pushed all solvency ratios including interest coverage, return on assets, and return on equity up. ROA and ROE were doubled from 2009 to 0. 16 and 0. 28 respectively. Likewise, interest coverage also had a big jump due to a significant increase in earnings before interest and taxes. If we include â€Å"off balance sheet debt, Starbucks debt to equity ratio increases a bit, but the trend still shows that this ratio has decreased significantly in 2010. The increase would not be enough to state that Starbucks runs a high risk of insolvency. Starbucks has $4,084. 2 in off balance sheet debt as of end of most recent fiscal year. (We assume that the numbers provided are in millions). Part V – Analysis of Cash Flow Refer to Starbucks’ cash flow statement: a. During the past three years, what was Starbucks’ largest source of cash? What were Starbucks’ two largest uses of cash? a. For the past 3 years, the largest source of cash for Starbucks was Net earnings including non-controlling assets from its operating activities. Starbucks’ two largest uses of cash were additions to property, plant and equipment, as well as purchasing available for sale securities. It is stated in the 10-k that the major components of the PPE spending were remodeling and upgrading equipment in stores, as well as updating the IT infrastructure of the retail network. b. For the past three fiscal years, has Starbucks’ CFO been adequate to fund its growth initiatives? If no, how has Starbucks funded the CFO shortfalls to fund growth? a. As stated in the 10-K Starbucks’ believes that cash flows generated from operations and existing cash and short term investments should be enough to support their core business activities. However, it is also stated that new business opportunities, joint ventures, and acquisitions would have to utilize outside funding sources. Starbucks has augmented to their cash flows by heavily investing in available for sale securities, and purchasing US Agency and investment grade bonds. These investments, and outside financing, can be used to fund growth initiatives while CFO can be used to support Starbucks’ core retail business. The 10K also mentions that the issuance of commercial paper and its proceeds can be used for working capital needs, capital expenditures, and other corporate purposes, including acquisitions and share repurchases. c. Based on your review of Starbucks’ cash flow statement, has Starbucks’ growth been driven by organic growth or acquisitions? Provide support for your answer. a. Starbucks growth has been driven organically, with strong, steady growth in net earnings including non-controlling interests, and investing a large amount of cash in property, plant, and equipment by opening new retail locations and upgrading existing stores and information systems. By utilizing CFO and short term investment earnings to support their core business, Starbucks’ has maintained a high growth, very successful retail operation. Acquisitions play a minor role compared to the growth and earnings from operating activities. d. If Starbucks continues to grow at its historic rates, does it appear that Starbucks’ CFO can fund this growth? If CFO isn’t sufficient, how might Starbucks fund its future growth? a. Yes, it does appear that Starbucks’ CFO can fund its historic growth. This is stated in the 10k; CFO and short term investments, as well as any potential future borrowings and the commercial paper program can support the existing core business as well as related marketing support, product innovations, and new business opportunities related to the core business. If CFO is not sufficient to fund the historic growth, Starbucks can utilize channels within the investment and finance sections of the cash flow statement. Particularly, Starbucks can invest more heavily in short term investments, and utilize the commercial paper program. Additionally, Starbucks purchases available for sale securities heavily – these could be sold in the future to fund any growth where CFO is not adequate to support the core business. e. During the past three fiscal years, what dollar amount of common stock did Starbucks repurchase and what dollar amount of dividends did they pay? Why would Starbucks repurchase their own stock and/or pay a dividend? How does this impact Starbucks ability to fund future growth? How did Starbucks’ strategy with regard to share repurchases and dividends change during the past few years? Why did it change? a. In 2008, Starbucks repurchased $ 311. 4 million in common stock. In 2009, Starbucks did not repurchase any stock. In 2010, Starbucks repurchased $ 285. 6 million in common stock. Starbucks may want to repurchase their own stock so that they can increase their earnings per share ratio. This is especially true if Starbucks shares were perceived as undervalued, as Starbucks can repurchase the shares and hold them in the treasury for future reissuance at a higher price. Starbucks may be able to obtain more financing and loans with better earnings per share ratio as well. Dividends can be paid to shareholders to increase the value of their shares, and encourage other interested parties to purchase Starbucks shares. Paying dividends is a way to help impact positive future growth by making the purchase of Starbucks stock more profitable – more people will want to buy it providing more cash for Starbucks to utilize. In the 10-k, it is stated that Starbucks had 1. 7 billion in CFO for 2010 compared to 1. 4 billion in fiscal 2009, and capital expenditures were approximately 440 million in both fiscal years. This left roughly $460 million for stock repurchases and dividends. Starbucks had to repay short term borrowings in 2008 and 2009, but did not have to use cash for repayment in 2010. The cash that would have been used to payback short term borrowings could instead be used to repurchase stock and pay dividends. Thus, the strategy changed because Starbucks was able to operate without short term borrowings in 2010, and was able to pass on the excess case to shareholders. Part VI – Market Valuation a. What is Starbuck’s net book value as of the end of the most recent fiscal year? What was Starbuck’s market capitalization as of that date? Why is there a difference in these two amounts? What specific items do you think comprise the difference? Starbucks’ net book value as of the end of 2010 fiscal year was $3,611,500,000 while its market cap was $19,270,826,000. The reason that the two numbers are different is because the net book value is calculated by taking the total assets of Starbucks and subtracting its intangible assets and total liabilities, while the market cap is calculated by multiplying the outstanding shares into the stock price. Because each is calculated using 5 different numbers, there will almost always be a difference in the two numbers. b. Do you believe the difference between Starbuck’s net book value and market capitalization will increase or decrease in the future? What specific factors or trends identified in Starbucks’ financial information (or identified elsewhere) support your view? We believe that the difference between Starbucks’ net book value and market capitalization will decrease in the future. One of the biggest reasons for this is the fact that Starbucks restructured its Supply Chain process to lower costs. As a result, net income grew by 142% in 2010. This was a huge turnaround by Starbucks in one year and it can be attributed to the fact that leadership identified and implemented this cost saving mechanism. Another trend that indicates that Starbucks is on its way back is the fact that they opened more stores than they closed in the last 2 years. This strategy is key to Starbucks succeeding. Third, Starbucks’ gross margin has remained constant in the last 5 years despite the down years. This shows that management knows how to cut down on costs when times are rough, or that despite financial downturns, people are still willing to pay for expensive coffee. Conclusion Refer to your responses in Part 1: How do the results of your analysis in Parts II through VI support or contradict your original thoughts regarding Starbucks growth strategy and the success or failure of the three action areas (growth initiatives) you identified? Our assumption on their strategy to saturate the U. S. Market by building as any stores as possible is supported by our discussion on sales growth, which shows that there is a direct correlation between sales revenue growth and net new stores opened. Likewise, in analyzing the CFO, we concluded that Starbucks has grown organically through their investment in PP&E, which corroborates our original thoughts. Although they probably realized they were overdoing it with having a Starbucks on every corner, their growth strategy of increasing store numb ers has been a success for the company as sales have also increased. Going forward, the challenge will be to maintain high sales rates while being able to cover its large PP&E/overhead expenses. Although we didn’t really analyze the impact of international expansion in our analysis above, according to the company’s 10-K, operating income from international activities more than doubled from 2009 to 2010; however, this increase was mostly due to foreign currency translation among other things. Therefore, our original thoughts are not necessarily proven by the data that we analyzed. Finally, we stated that one of Starbucks’ growth strategies was to develop alternative revenue sources. As we looked deeper at the reasons for sales growth, we noticed that licensing and food service both were strong contributors to the increases in net revenues. Our discussion on sales growth indirectly supports this hypothesis, since the increase in net revenues was affected by an increase in average value per transaction (as stated in the 10-K). This means that customers are not just buying coffee at the checkout stand because Starbucks is being successful at selling other complimentary goods along with their drinks. Therefore, this is definitely being a successful growth strategy for Starbucks.